Etymology
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scarlet (n.)

mid-13c. (late 12c. as a surname), "rich cloth" (often, but not necessarily, bright red), from a shortened form of Old French escarlate "scarlet (color), top-quality fabric" (12c., Modern French écarlate), which, with Medieval Latin scarlatum "scarlet, cloth of scarlet," Italian scarlatto, Spanish escarlate often is said to be from a Middle Eastern source, but perhaps is rather from a Germanic source akin to Old High German scarlachen, scharlachen (c. 1200), from scar "sheared" + lachen "cloth."

In English it is attested as the name of a color, a highly chromatic and brilliant red, from late 14c. It was used as an adjective in reference to this color, or to gowns of this color, from c. 1300.

Scarlet Lady is Biblical (Isaiah i.18, Revelation xvii.1-5); she has been variously identified by commentators. Scarlet woman "notoriously immoral woman, prostitute" (by 1924) perhaps is from notion of "red with shame or indignation." Earlier it was used in the same sense as Scarlet Lady.

Scarlet fever is from 1670s, so called for its characteristic rash. It also was an old slang term for the condition of women irresistibly glamoured by men in uniform. Scarlet oak, a New World tree, is so called from 1590s. Scarlet letter in figurative use traces to Hawthorne's story (1850), a red cloth "A" which convicted adulterers were condemned to wear. German Scharlach, Dutch scharlaken show influence of words cognate with English lake (n.2).

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cup (n.)

"small vessel used to contain liquids generally; drinking vessel," Old English cuppe, Old Northumbrian copp, from Late Latin cuppa "cup" (source of Italian coppa, Spanish copa, Old French coupe "cup"), from Latin cupa "tub, cask, tun, barrel," which is thought to be cognate with Sanskrit kupah "hollow, pit, cave," Greek kype "gap, hole; a kind of ship," Old Church Slavonic kupu, Lithuanian kaupas "heap," Old Norse hufr "ship's hull," Old English hyf "beehive." De Vaan writes that all probably are from "a non-IE loanword *kup- which was borrowed by and from many languages."

The Late Latin word was borrowed throughout Germanic: Old Frisian kopp "cup, head," Middle Low German kopp "cup," Middle Dutch coppe, Dutch kopje "cup, head." German cognate Kopf now means exclusively "head" (compare French tête, from Latin testa "potsherd").

Used of any thing with the shape of a cup by c. 1400; sense of "quantity contained in a cup" is from late 14c. Meaning "part of a bra that holds a breast" is from 1938. Sense of "cup-shaped metal vessel offered as a prize in sport or games" is from 1640s. Sense of "suffering to be endured" (late 14c.) is a biblical image (Matthew xx.22, xxvi.39) on the notion of "something to be partaken of."

To be in one's cups "intoxicated" is from 1610s (Middle English had cup-shoten "drunk, drunken," mid-14c.). [One's] cup of tea "what interests one" is by 1932, earlier used of persons (1908), the sense being "what is invigorating." Cup-bearer "attendant at a feast who conveys wine or other liquor to guests" is from early 15c.

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cup (v.)

late 14c., "to draw blood by means of cupping glasses," from cup (n.). Meaning "to form a cup" is from 1830. Related: Cupped; cupping.

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Davis Cup 

donated 1900 as a national tennis championship trophy by U.S. statesman Dwight Filley Davis (1879-1945) while still an undergraduate at Harvard.

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tea-cup (n.)

also teacup, 1700, from tea + cup (n.).

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egg-cup (n.)

"cup for use in eating soft-boiled eggs," 1773, from egg (n.) + cup (n.).

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scarlatina (n.)

"scarlet fever," 1803, from Modern Latin scarlatina (Sydenham, 1676), from Italian scarlattina (Lancelotti, 1527), fem. of scarlattino (adj.), diminutive of scarlatto "scarlet" (see scarlet). According to OED, often "misapprehended" as meaning a milder form of the disease. Related: Scarlattinal.

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cupful (n.)

"quantity that a cup holds, contents of a cup," late Old English, from cup (n.) + -ful.

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demi-tasse (n.)

also demitasse, "small coffee cup," 1842, from French, literally "half-cup," from demi- + tasse "cup," an Old French borrowing from Arabic tassah, from Persian tasht "cup, saucer." Also from Arabic are Italian tazza, Spanish taza "cup." German Tasse is from French.

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kylix (n.)

"elegant cup or vase for drinking" (usually broad and shallow, with handles), 1873 (earlier in German), from Greek kylix "cup," which is similar to Latin calix "deep bowl, cup" (see chalice).

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