Ruritanian (adj.)

"utopian," 1896, from Ruritania, name of an imaginary kingdom in "The Prisoner of Zenda" (1894) by Anthony Hope (1863-1933), who coined it from Latin rus (genitive ruris) "country" (see rural) + Latinate ending -itania (as in Lusitania, Mauritania). Ruritania as a recognizable generic name for an imaginary country lasted into the 1970s.

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nation in Eastern Europe with a large possession in north Asia, 1530s, from Medieval Latin Russi "the people of Russia," from Rus, the native name of the people and the country (source of Arabic Rus, Medieval Greek Rhos), originally the name of a group of Swedish merchant/warriors who established themselves around Kiev 9c. and founded the original Russian principality; perhaps from Ruotsi, the Finnish name for "Sweden," from Old Norse Roþrslandi, "the land of rowing," old name of Roslagen, where the Finns first encountered the Swedes. This is from Old Norse roðr "steering oar," from Proto-Germanic *rothra- "rudder" (from PIE *rot-ro-, from root *ere- "to row").

Derivation from the IE root for "red," in reference to hair color, is considered less likely. Russian city-states were founded and ruled by Vikings and their descendants. The Russian form of the name, Rossiya, appears to be from Byzantine Greek Rhosia.

Russification is attested from 1842; Russianization by 1891.

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rustic (adj.)

mid-15c., rustik, "associated with the country, rural," from Latin rusticus "of the country, rural; country-like, plain, simple, rough, coarse, awkward," from rus (genitive ruris) "open land, country" (see rural).

From 1580s, of persons, "having the look and manner of country folk, wanting refinement." By 1590s of rude or undressed workmanship. By c. 1600 as "plain and simple, having the charm of the country."

The noun meaning "a country person, peasant" is from 1550s (also in classical Latin). Related: Rustical "living in the country," early 15c., rusticalle, from Medieval Latin rusticalis.

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Prussia (n.)

region in northeastern Germany, late 14c., Prusse (late 13c. as a surname), from Medieval Latin Borussi, Prusi, Latinized forms of the native name of the Lithuanian people who lived in the bend of the Baltic before being conquered 12c. and exterminated by (mostly) German crusaders who replaced them as the inhabitants.

Perhaps from Slavic *Po-Rus "(Land) Near the Rusi" (i.e. Russians; compare Pomerania). The German duchy of Prussia after the 17c. union with the Mark of Brandenberg became the core of the Prussian monarchy and later the chief state in the German Empire. The center of power shifted to Berlin after the union, and the old core of the state came to be known as East Prussia.

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rural (adj.)

early 15c., of persons, "living in the countryside," from Old French rural (14c.), from Latin ruralis "of the countryside," from rus (genitive ruris) "open land, country" (from PIE *reue- (1) "to open; space;" see room (n.)).

In early examples there is usually little or no difference between the meanings of rural and rustic, but in later use the tendency is to employ rural when the idea of locality (country scenes, etc.) is prominent, and rustic when there is a suggestion of the more primitive qualities or manners naturally attaching to country life. [OED]

By 1510s as "characteristic of country life generally, rustic. Extended senses in 15c. included "lowly, unlearned, uncouth, unpretentious, unpolished;" the overal sense of "characteristic of the country, as opposed to the town," is by 1580s.

As a noun, "a country person, a peasant" mid-15c. Related: Rurally; ruralism; rurality. Wordsworth uses ruralize "give a rural character to," but ruralization was used from 1859, of persons, in the sense of "a going into the country."

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room (n.)

Middle English roum, from Old English rum "space, extent; sufficient space, fit occasion (to do something)," from Proto-Germanic *ruman (source also of Old Norse, Old Saxon, Old High German, Gothic rum, German Raum "space," Dutch ruim "hold of a ship, nave"), nouns formed from Germanic adjective *ruma- "roomy, spacious," from PIE root *reue- (1) "to open; space" (source also of Avestan ravah- "space," Latin rus "open country," Old Irish roi, roe "plain field," Old Church Slavonic ravinu "level," Russian ravnina "a plain").

Old English also had a frequent adjective rum "roomy, wide, long, spacious," also an adverb, rumlice "bigly, corpulently" (Middle English roumli).

The meaning "chamber, cabin" is recorded by early 14c. as a nautical term; applied by mid-15c. to interior division of a building separated by walls or partitions; the Old English word for this was cofa, ancestor of cove. The sense of "persons assembled in a room" is by 1712.

Make room "open a passage, make way" is from mid-15c.  Room-service is attested from 1913; room-temperature, comfortable for the occupants of a room, is so called from 1879. Roomth "sufficient space" (1530s, with -th (2)) now is obsolete.

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