1660s, "action of detaching or disconnecting," from French détachement (17c.), from détacher (see detach). Meaning "that which is detached," especially "portion of a military force detailed for special service or purpose" is from 1670s. Sense of "spiritual separation from the world, aloofness from objects or circumstances" is from 1798.
1923, from German, literally "storm detachment;" paramilitary force of the Nazi Party, founded 1921, repressed 1934, also know by its initials, S.A.; also see Brown Shirt.
also cancelation, "act of cancelling," 1530s, from Latin cancellationem (nominative cancellatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of cancellare "to cancel" (see cancel). Of reservations for conveyances, hotels, etc., from 1953. Earlier (early 15c.) in medical writing, in reference to the crossing of retinal images.
generic term for "Nazi, fascist," especially of the thuggish sort, 1934, originally (1922) in reference to the German Sturmabteilung ("Storm Detachment"), the Nazi party militia founded 1921; they were called Brown Shirts in English because of their uniforms.
"permanently organized framework of a military unit" (the officers, etc., as opposed to the rank-and-file), 1851; earlier "framework, scheme" (1830); from French cadre, literally "a frame of a picture" (16c.), so, "a detachment forming the skeleton of a regiment," from Italian quadro, from Latin quadrum "a square," which related to quattuor "four" (from PIE root *kwetwer- "four"). The communist sense of "group or cell of workers trained to promote the interests of the Party" is from 1930.
1660s, "action of going the rounds" (of a military camp, etc.), from French patrouille "a night watch" (1530s), from patrouiller "go the rounds to watch or guard," originally "tramp through the mud," probably soldiers' slang, from Old French patouiller "paddle in water," which is probably from pate "paw, foot" (see patten). Compare paddlefoot, World War II U.S. Army slang for "infantry soldier." Meaning "those who go on a patrol" is from 1660s. Sense of "detachment of soldiers sent out to scout the countryside, the enemy, etc." is attested from 1702.