1824, "a work of art made in exact likeness of another and by the same artist," from Italian replica "copy, repetition, reply," from replicare "to duplicate," from Latin replicare "to repeat," in classical Latin "fold back, fold over, bend back," from re- "back, again" (see re-) + plicare "to fold" (from PIE root *plek- "to plait").
Properly, a duplicate work made by the same artist and thus considered as an original, not a copy. General sense of "any copy, reproduction, or facsimile" is by 1865.
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to plait." It is an extended form of root *pel- (2) "to fold."
It forms all or part of: accomplice; application; apply; complex; complexion; complicate; complication; complicity; deploy; display; duplex; duplicate; duplicity; employ; explicate; explicit; exploit; flax; implex; implicate; implication; implicit; imply; multiply; perplex; perplexity; plait; plash (v.2) "to interlace;" pleat; -plex; plexus; pliable; pliant; plie; plight (n.1) "condition or state;" ply (v.1) "work with, use;" ply (v.2) "to bend; ply (n.) "a layer, fold;" replica; replicate; replication; reply; simplex; splay; triplicate.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit prasna- "turban;" Greek plekein "to plait, braid, wind, twine," plektos "twisted;" Latin plicare "to lay, fold, twist," plectere (past participle plexus) "to plait, braid, intertwine;" Old Church Slavonic plesti "to braid, plait, twist," Russian plesti; Gothic flahta "braid;" Old Norse fletta, Old High German flehtan "to plait;" Old English fleax "cloth made with flax, linen."
early 15c. (Chauliac), replicaten, "repeat," from Late Latin replicatus, past participle of replicare "to reply, repeat," in classical Latin "fold back, fold over, bend back," from re- "back, again" (see re-) + plicare "to fold" (from PIE root *plek- "to plait").
Meaning "to copy, reproduce, make a replica of" is from 1882, a back-formation from replication. The scientific sense of "repeat (an experiment) and get a consistent result" is by 1923. Genetic sense is recorded from 1957. Related: Replicated; replicating; replicative.
1823, a spectacular painting intended to be exhibited in a darkened room to produce an appearance of reality using lighting from behind it, from French diorama (1822), from assimilated form of Greek dia "through" (see dia-) + orama "that which is seen, a sight" (see panorama, on which this word is based). It was invented in France by Daguerre (later the pioneer photographer) and Bauton and first exhibited in England in 1823.
Meaning "small-scale replica of a scene, etc., using three-dimensional objects and a painted background" is from 1902. Related: Dioramic.