Etymology
Advertisement
sin (n.)

Old English synn "moral wrongdoing, injury, mischief, enmity, feud, guilt, crime, offense against God, misdeed," from Proto-Germanic *sundiō "sin" (source also of Old Saxon sundia, Old Frisian sende, Middle Dutch sonde, Dutch zonde, German Sünde "sin, transgression, trespass, offense," extended forms), probably ultimately "it is true," i.e. "the sin is real" (compare Gothic sonjis, Old Norse sannr "true"), from PIE *snt-ya-, a collective form from *es-ont- "becoming," present participle of root *es- "to be."

The semantic development is via notion of "to be truly the one (who is guilty)," as in Old Norse phrase verð sannr at "be found guilty of," and the use of the phrase "it is being" in Hittite confessional formula. The same process probably yielded the Latin word sons (genitive sontis) "guilty, criminal" from present participle of sum, esse "to be, that which is." Some etymologists believe the Germanic word was an early borrowing directly from the Latin genitive. Also see sooth.

Sin-eater is attested from 1680s. To live in sin "cohabit without marriage" is from 1838; used earlier in a more general sense. Ice hockey slang sin bin "penalty box" is attested from 1950.

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
remission (n.)

c. 1200, remissioun, "forgiveness or pardon (of sins)," from Old French remission "forgiveness (of sins), relief" (12c.) and directly from Latin remissionem (nominative remissio) "relaxation, diminishing," etymologically "a sending back, sending away," noun of action from past-participle stem of remittere "slacken, let go, abate" (see remit).

From late 14c. as "release from duty or obligation." Of diseases, fevers, "abatement, temporary subsidence," from early 15c. General sense of "diminution of force or effects" is from c. 1600. By 1736 as "abatement of penalty or punishment."

Related entries & more 
sin (v.)
Old English syngian "to commit sin, transgress, err," from synn (see sin (n.)); the form influenced by the noun. Compare Old Saxon sundion, Old Frisian sendigia, Middle Dutch sondighen, Dutch zondigen, Old High German sunteon, German sündigen "to sin." Form altered from Middle English sunigen by influence of the noun.
Related entries & more 
indulgence (n.)
mid-14c., in the Church sense, "a freeing from temporal punishment for sin, remission from punishment for sin that remains due after absolution," from Old French indulgence or directly from Latin indulgentia "complaisance, a yielding; fondness, tenderness, affection; remission," from indulgentem (nominative indulgens) "indulgent, kind, tender, fond," present participle of indulgere "be kind; yield, concede, be complaisant; give oneself up to, be addicted," a word of uncertain origin. It is evidently a compound, and the second element appears to be from PIE root *dlegh- "to engage oneself, be or become fixed." The first element could be in- "in" for a sense of "let someone be engaged" in something, or in- "not" for a total sense of "not be hard toward" someone.

Sense of "leniency, forbearance of restraint or control of another, gratification of desire or humor" is attested from late 14c. That of "yielding to one's inclinations" (technically self-indulgence) in English is from 1630s. In British history, Indulgence also refers to grants of certain liberties to Nonconformists under Charles II and James II, as special favors rather than legal rights. The sale of indulgences in the original Church sense was done at times merely to raise money and was widely considered corrupt; the one in 1517 helped to spark the Protestant revolt in Germany.
Related entries & more 
hamartiology (n.)
"that part of theology which deals with sin and its effects," 1875, from Greek hamartia "sin" (see hamartia) + -ology.
Related entries & more 
Advertisement
impeccable (adj.)

1530s, "not capable of sin," from French impeccable (15c.) or directly from Late Latin impeccabilis "not liable to sin," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + peccare "to sin" (see peccadillo). Meaning "faultless" is from 1610s. Related: Impeccably; impeccant; impeccancy.

Related entries & more 
sinful (adj.)
Old English synnfull "full of sin, wicked, unholy, contrary to the laws of God;" see sin (n.) + -ful. Weakened sense of "contrary to propriety or decency" is from 1863. Related: Sinfully; sinfulness.
Related entries & more 
relaxation (n.)

late 14c., relaxacioun, "a rupture, a hernia" (a sense now obsolete); mid-15c., "remission of a burden or penalty," from Old French relaxacion (14c.) and directly from Latin relaxationem (nominative relaxatio) "an easing, mitigation, relaxation," noun of action from past-participle stem of relaxare "loosen, open, stretch out" (see relax).

Meaning "relief from hard work or ordinary cares; a state or occupation intended to give mental or bodily relief after effort or ordinary occupations and cares" is from 1540s. Sense of "remission or abatement of rigor or intensity" is from 1690s.

Related entries & more 
Sino- 

before vowels Sin-, word-forming element meaning "Chinese," 1879, from Late Latin Sinæ (plural) "the Chinese," from Ptolemaic Greek Sinai, from Arabic Sin "China," probably from Chinese Ch'in, name of the fourth dynasty of China (see China).

Related entries & more 
peccavi (v.)

statement acknowledging or confessing sin; Latin, literally "I have sinned;" first person singular preterite indicative active of peccare "to sin" (see peccadillo). Related: peccavimus "we have sinned;" peccavit "he has sinned."

Related entries & more