Etymology
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rage (n.)

c. 1300, "madness, insanity; fit of frenzy; rashness, foolhardiness, intense or violent emotion, anger, wrath; fierceness in battle; violence" (of storms, fire, etc.), from Old French rage, raige "spirit, passion, rage, fury, madness" (11c.), from Medieval Latin rabia, from Latin rabies "madness, rage, fury," related to rabere "be mad, rave" (compare rabies, which originally had this sense). This is said by some sources to be from PIE *rebh- "violent, impetuous" (source also of Old English rabbian "to rage"), but de Vaan finds this uncertain and sees no convincing etymology.

Similarly, Welsh (cynddaredd) and Breton (kounnar) words for "rage, fury" originally meant "hydrophobia" and are compounds based on the word for "dog" (Welsh ci, plural cwn; Breton ki).

It is attested from late 14c. in the sense of "fit of carnal lust or sexual desire." In 15c.-16c. it also could mean "rabies." Other Middle English senses, now obsolete, include "come to a boil; grieve, mourn, lament; flirt, make love." The rage "fashion, vogue" dates from 1785.

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rage (v.)

mid-13c., ragen, "to play, romp," from rage (n.). Original sense now obsolete. Meanings "be furious; speak passionately; go mad" are attested from early 14c. Of things "be violently driven or agitated," from 1530s. Related: Raged; raging.

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raging (adj.)

late 15c., "full of rage," present-participle adjective from rage (v.). By 1886 as "very successful." Other, less common, adjectives include rageful (1570s); rageous (mid-15c.), ragesome (1913).

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rabid (adj.)

1610s, "furious, raving, behaving violently," from Latin rabidus "raging, furious, enraged; inspired; ungoverned; rabid," from rabere "be mad, rave" (see rage (v.)). The specific meaning "made mad by rabies" in English is recorded by 1804. Related: Rabidly; rabidness.

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enrage (v.)

late 14c., "make furious or mad" (implied in enraged), from Old French enragier "go wild, go mad, lose one's senses," from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + rage "rabies, rage" (see rage (n.)). Related: Enraging. Intransitive only in Old French; but the transitive sense is oldest and predominant in English.

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rabies (n.)

"extremely fatal infectious disease of dogs, humans, and many other mammals," 1590s, from Latin rabies "madness, rage, fury," related to rabere "be mad, rave" (see rage (v.)). The mad-dog disease sense was a secondary meaning of the Latin noun. Known as hydrophobia (q.v.) in humans. Related: Rabietic.

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furor (n.)

"rage, madness, angry mania," late 15c., furour, from Old French fureur (12c.), from Latin furor "a ravaging, rage, madness, passion," which is related to furia "rage, passion, fury" (see fury).

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bibliomania (n.)

"book-madness, a rage for collecting rare or unusual books," 1734, after French bibliomanie, from biblio- "book" + mania.

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fury (n.)

late 14c., "fierce passion," from Old French furie, fuire "rage, frenzy" (14c.), from Latin furia "violent passion, rage, madness," from or related to furere "to rage, be mad," which is of uncertain origin. "Many etymologies have been proposed, but none is clearly the best" [de Vaan]. Romans used Furiæ to translate Greek Erinyes, the collective name for the avenging deities sent from Tartarus to punish criminals (in later accounts three in number and female). Hence, in English, figuratively, "an angry woman" (late 14c.).

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furious (adj.)

late 14c., "impetuous, unrestrained," from Old French furios, furieus "furious, enraged, livid" (14c., Modern French furieux), from Latin furiosus "full of rage, mad," from furia "rage, passion, fury" (see fury). Furioso, from the Italian form of the word, was used in English 17c.-18c. for "an enraged person," probably from Ariosto's "Orlando Furioso."

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