Etymology
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Protestant (n., adj.)

as a noun, in the broadest sense, "member or adherent of a Christian body descended from the Reformation of the 16c. and repudiating papal authority," 1539, from German or French protestant, from Latin protestantem (nominative protestans), present participle of protestari (see protest (n.)).

Originally used of German princes and free cities who declared their dissent from ("protested") the decision of the Diet of Speyer (1529), which reversed the liberal terms allowed Lutherans in 1526.

When forced to make their choice between obedience to God and obedience to the Emperor, they were compelled to choose the former. [Thomas M. Lindsay, "A History of the Reformation," New York, 1910]

The word was taken up by the Lutherans in Germany (Swiss and French preferred Reformed). It became the general word for "adherents of the Reformation in Germany," then "member of any Western church outside the Roman (or Greek) communion;" a sense attested in English by 1553.

In the 17c., 'protestant' was primarily opposed to 'papist,' and thus accepted by English Churchmen generally; in more recent times, being generally opposed to 'Roman Catholic,' or ... to 'Catholic,' ... it is viewed with disfavour by those who lay stress on the claim of the Anglican Church to be equally Catholic with the Roman. [OED]

Often contemptuous shortened form Prot is from 1725, in Irish English. Related: Protestancy. Protestant (work) ethic (1926) is taken from Max Weber's work "Die protestantische Ethik und der 'Geist' des Kapitalismus" (1904). Protestant Reformation attested by 1680s.

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protestant (adj.)

"protesting, making a protest," by 1844, from French or directly from Latin protestantem, present participle of protestari "declare publicly, testify, protest" (see protest (n.)). Usually distinguished by pronunciation, if it is used at all, from Protestant.

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Prot (n.)

colloquial shortening of Protestant (n.), by 1725, used by Catholics, often contemptuous.

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Protestantism (n.)

"state of being a Protestant; religious principles of Protestants," 1640s, from French protestantisme or else formed from Protestant + -ism. Meaning "Protestant Christians or churches" is from 1660s.

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WASP (n.)
acronym for White Anglo-Saxon Protestant, by 1955.
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Counter-reformation 

"the resurgence of the Catholic Church from mid-16c. to early 17c. in response to the Protestant Reformation," 1840, from counter- + Reformation.

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P.E. 

also PE, by 1956 as an abbreviation of physical education (see physical). Earlier it stood for Protestant Episcopal.

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Arminian (adj.)
1610s in reference to a Protestant sect, from Arminius, Latinized form of the name of James Harmensen (1560-1609), Dutch Protestant theologian who opposed Calvin, especially on the question of predestination. His ideas were denounced at the Synod of Dort, but nonetheless spread in the Reformed churches. As a noun from 1610s. Related: Arminianism.
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Zwinglian (adj.)
1532, after Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531), Swiss Protestant reformer who revolted from the Roman communion in 1516 but who differed from Luther on theological points relating to the real presence in the Eucharist.
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eschaton (n.)
"divinely ordained climax of history," 1935, coined by Protestant theologian Charles Harold Dodd (1884-1973) from Greek eskhaton, neuter of eskhatos "last, furthest, uttermost" (see eschatology).
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