Etymology
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font (n.1)
"water basin," especially used in baptism, late Old English, from Latin fons (genitive fontis) "fountain" (see fountain), especially in Medieval Latin fons baptismalis "baptismal font." The word is sometimes used poetically for "a fountain; a source."
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font (n.2)

"complete set of characters of a particular face and size of printing type," 1680s (also fount); earlier "a casting" (1570s); from French fonte "a casting," noun use of fem. past participle of fondre "to melt," from Latin fundere (past participle fusus) "to melt, cast, pour out" (from nasalized form of PIE root *gheu- "to pour"). So called because all the letters in a given set were cast at the same time.

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proportional (adj.)

late 14c. proporcional (implied in proporcionalli), "having a particular correspondence, according to or having a due proportion," from Old French proporcionel and directly from Late Latin proportionalis "pertaining to proportions," from proportio "comparative relation, analogy" (see proportion (n.)). The phrase proportional representation in the political sense for representation based on numerical proportion (rather than regional division) is attested by 1821. Related: Proportionally.

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typeface (n.)

also type-face, 1852, "top of a type," from type (n.) in the printing sense + face (n.). In modern common usage, synonymous with font (n.2), but there is a technical distinction: the typeface is the set of characters of the same design; the font is the physical (or electronic) means of producing them.

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fount (n.)

"spring of water," 1590s, probably a shortening of fountain influenced by French font "fount." Figurative use also is from 1590s.

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reapportionment (n.)

also re-apportionment, "new proportional distribution or arrangement," 1800, American English, from re- + apportionment. Especially in the U.S., "the redrawing of state or federal legislative districts after a census."

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quota (n.)

"a proportional part or share, the share or portion assigned to each," 1660s, from Medieval Latin quota, from Latin quota (pars) "how large (a part)," from quota, fem. singular of quotus "how many, of what number (in sequence);" see quote (v.). Earliest reference is to contributions of soldiers or supplies levied from a town or district; of immigrants or imports from 1921.

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rate (n.)

early 15c., "estimated value or worth, proportional estimation according to some standard; monetary amount; a proportional part," from Old French rate "price, value" and directly from Medieval Latin rata (pars) "fixed (amount)," from Latin rata "fixed, settled," fem. past participle of reri "to reckon, think" (from PIE root *re- "to reason, count").

Meaning "degree of speed" (properly ratio between distance and time) is attested from 1650s. Currency exchange sense of "basis of equivalence upon which one currency is exchanged for another" is recorded by 1727. Meaning "fixed public tax assessed on property for some local purpose" is by 1712.

First-rate, second-rate, etc. are 1640s, from British Navy division of ships into six classes based on size and strength. Phrase at any rate originally (1610s) meant "at any cost," hence "positively, assuredly." weakened sense of "at least" is attested by 1760. Rate-payer "one who is assessed and pays a local tax" is by 1825.

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agate (n.)

variety of banded, colored quartz, 1560s, from French agate, from Latin achates, from Greek akhatēs, the name of a river in Sicily where the stones were found (Pliny). But the river could as easily be named for the stone.

Earlier in English as achate (early 13c.), directly from Latin. The Elizabethan sense of "a diminutive person" is from the small figures cut in agates for seals, etc., and the notion of smallness is preserved in typographer's agate (1838), the U.S. name of the 5.5-point font called in Great Britain ruby. Meaning "toy marble made of glass resembling agate" is from 1843 (colloquially called an aggie). Related: Agatine.

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*gheu- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to pour, pour a libation."

It forms all or part of: alchemy; chyle; chyme; confound; confuse; diffuse; diffusion; effuse; effusion; effusive; fondant; fondue; font (n.2) "complete set of characters of a particular face and size of type;" found (v.2) "to cast metal;" foundry; funnel; fuse (v.) "to melt, make liquid by heat;" fusible; fusion; futile; futility; geyser; gush; gust (n.) "sudden squall of wind;" gut; infuse; ingot; parenchyma; perfuse; perfusion; profuse; refund; refuse (v.) "reject, disregard, avoid;" refuse (n.) "waste material, trash;" suffuse; suffusion; transfuse; transfusion.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek khein "to pour," khoane "funnel," khymos "juice;" Latin fundere (past participle fusus) "melt, cast, pour out;" Gothic giutan, Old English geotan "to pour;" Old English guttas (plural) "bowels, entrails;" Old Norse geysa "to gush;" German Gosse "gutter, drain."
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