Etymology
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prolong (v.)

early 15c., prolongen, "lengthen in time, extend the duration of; delay, postpone," back-formation from prolongation or else from Old French prolonguer, porloignier (13c.) and directly from Late Latin prolongare "to prolong, extend," from Latin pro "forth" (see pro-) + longus "long" (adj.); see long (adj.). The same elements also form purloin. Related: Prolonged; prolonging; prolongable.

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purloin (v.)

mid-14c., purloinen, "to remove; misappropriate; to entice (a craftsman or apprentice) from a master," from Anglo-French purloigner "remove," Old French porloigner "put off, retard, delay, drag out; be far away," from por- (a variant of Latin pro- "forth;" see pro-) + Old French loing "far," from Latin longe, from longus "long" (see long (adj.)). Essentially a doublet of prolong, formed in French from the same Latin elements. Sense of "to steal" (1540s) is a development in English. Related: Purloined; purloining.

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linger (v.)
c. 1300, lenger "reside, dwell," northern England frequentative of lengen "to tarry," from Old English lengan "prolong, lengthen," from Proto-Germanic *langjan "to make long" (source also of Old Frisian lendza, Old High German lengan, Dutch lengen "to lengthen"), from *langaz- "long" (see long (adj.)).

Intransitive sense of "delay going, depart slowly and unwillingly" is from 1520s. Meaning "remain long in sickness, be near death for a time" is from 1530s. It shares verbal duties with long, prolong, lengthen. Related: Lingered; lingerer; lingering.
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eloign (v.)
1530s, intransitive, "to remove to a distance" (especially in an effort to avoid the law), from Anglo-French eloign, Old French esloigner (Modern French éloigner), from Late Latin exlongare "remove, keep aloof, prolong, etc." (see elongation). Transitive use from 1550s. Related: Eloignment.
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elongate (v.)
"to make long or longer," 1530s, from Late Latin elongatus, past participle of elongare "to prolong, protract, remove to a distance," from Latin ex "out" (see ex-) + longus "long" (see long (adj.)). Earlier in English in the same sense was elongen (mid-15c.). Related: Elongated; elongating.
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prolongation (n.)

late 14c., prolongacioun, "condition of being extended;" early 15c. as "protraction, lengthening in time;" from Old French prolongacion (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin prolongationem (nominative prolongatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Late Latin prolongare "to prolong, extend," from Latin pro "forth" (see pro-) + longus "long" (adj.); see long (adj.).

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macrobiotic (adj.)

also macro-biotic, 1797, "tending to prolong life," 1797, from Greek makrobiotikos "long-lived," from makros "long" (from PIE root *mak- "long, thin") + bios "life" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live"). The specific reference to a Zen Buddhist dietary system dates from 1936. Hence macrobiote "a long-lived person or animal" (1852); macrobiosis "long life, longevity" (1837); macrobiotics "the study of longevity" (by 1832); "theory of macrobiotic diets" (by 1948).

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prorogue (v.)

early 15c., prorogen, "to prolong, extend" (a truce, agreement, etc.), a sense now obsolete, from Old French proroger, proroguer (14c.) and directly from Latin prorogare, literally "to ask publicly," from pro "before" (see pro-) + rogare "to ask, inquire, question; ask a favor," also "to propose (a law, a candidate);" see rogation. Perhaps the original sense in Latin was "to ask for public assent to extending someone's term in office."

The parliamentary meaning "discontinue temporarily, adjourn until a later time without dissolution" is attested from mid-15c. Related: Prorogued; prorogation.

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elixir (n.)
mid-13c., from Medieval Latin elixir "philosopher's stone," believed by alchemists to transmute baser metals into gold and/or to cure diseases and prolong life, from Arabic al-iksir "the philosopher's stone," probably from late Greek xerion "powder for drying wounds," from xeros "dry" (see xerasia). Later in medical use for "a tincture with more than one base." General sense of "strong tonic" is 1590s; used for quack medicines from at least 1630s.
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protract (v.)

"draw out or lengthen in time," 1530s, a back-formation from protraction and in part from Latin protractus, past participle of protrahere "to draw forth, prolong." Etymologically identical with portray, which is the same Latin verb altered in passing through French. Related: Protracted; protracting. The English verb survived chiefly in the past-participle adjective.

Protracted meeting, a revival meeting continued or protracted ; a series of meetings of unusual importance, often lasting for several days and attended by large numbers ; chiefly used by Congregationalists, Methodists, and Baptists. [Century Dictionary]

The phrase is attested by 1832.

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