Etymology
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predominance (n.)

"quality of being predominant; superiority in power, authority, or influence," c. 1600; see predominant + -ance. Related: Predominancy (1590s).

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commercialism (n.)

1849, "principles and practice of commerce," from commercial (adj.) + -ism. By 1889 as "predominance of commercial pursuits in a place or community."

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militarism (n.)

1841, "military spirit, addiction to war or military practice," from French militarisme, from militaire "military" (see military); also see -ism. By 1864 in reference to nations or peoples, "predominance of the military class, maintenance of national power by means of standing armies."

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phlegmatic (adj.)

mid-14c., fleumatik, "having the temperament formerly supposed to result from predominance of the bodily humor phlegm" (cool, calm, self-possessed, and in a pejorative sense, cold, dull, apathetic;) late 14c., "composed of phlegm (the bodily humor); containing phlegm," from Old French fleumatique (13c., Modern French flegmatique), from Late Latin phlegmaticus, from Greek phlegmatikos "abounding in phlegm" (see phlegm). Related: Phlegmatical; phlegmatically.

A verry flewmatike man is in the body lustles, heuy and slow. [Bartholomew Glanville, "De proprietatibus rerum," c. 1240, translated by John of Trevisa c. 1398]
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petticoat (n.)

early 15c., petycote, "men's short, tight-fitting coat," literally "a small coat," from petty + coat (n.). Originally a padded coat worn by men under armor, applied mid-15c. to a garment worn by women and young children. By 1590s, the typical feminine garment, hence a symbol of female sex or character and, colloquially, "a woman," as in petticoat government "rule or predominance of women in a home" (1702).

Men declare that the petticoatless female has unsexed herself and has left her modesty behind. [Godey's Magazine, April 1896]
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hegemony (n.)

1560s, "preponderance, dominance, leadership," originally of predominance of one city state or another in Greek history; from Greek hēgemonia "leadership, a leading the way, a going first;" also "the authority or sovereignty of one city-state over a number of others," as Athens in Attica, Thebes in Boeotia; from hēgemon "leader, an authority, commander, sovereign," from hēgeisthai "to lead," perhaps originally "to track down," from PIE *sag-eyo-, from root *sag- "to seek out, track down, trace" (see seek). In reference to modern situations from 1850, at first of Prussia in relation to other German states.

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sanguine (adj.)

late 14c., "blood-red, of a blood-red color" (late 12c. as a surname), from Old French sanguin (fem. sanguine) and directly from Latin sanguineus "of blood," also "bloody, bloodthirsty," from sanguis (genitive sanguinis) "blood" (see sanguinary).

The meaning "cheerful, hopeful, vivacious, confident" is attested by c. 1500, because these qualities were thought in old medicine to spring from an excess or predominance of blood as one of the four humors. The sense of "of or pertaining to blood" (mid-15c.) is rare.

 Also in Middle English as a noun, a type of red cloth (early 14c.). It sometimes was used in the senses now going with sanguinary.

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phlegm (n.)

late 14c., fleem, fleume, "viscid mucus, discharge from a mucous membrane of the body," also the name of one of the four bodily humors, from Old French fleume (13c., Modern French flegme), from Late Latin phlegma, one of the four humors of the body, from Greek phlegma "morbid, clammy bodily humor caused by heat;" literally "inflammation, flame, fire, heat," from phlegein "to burn," related to phlox (genitive phlogos) "flame, blaze," from PIE *bhleg- "to shine, flash," from root *bhel- (1) "to shine, flash, burn."

The modern form of the word is attested by c. 1660. In old physiology it was the "cold, moist" humor of the body and a predominance of it was believed to cause dullness, lethargy, and apathy, hence phlegmatic.

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scientism (n.)

"belief in the omnipotence of scientific knowledge and methods and in their applicability to everything," a derogatory term, by 1870 (G.B. Shaw); see science + -ism. An earlier word was scientificism (1825) "restriction of analysis or explanation to what is scientifically demonstrable."

Particularly is the present age of science characterized by a predominance of observation over reflection. One would think from the general tendency in this direction that science was little else than gathering of facts. So it has come to pass that a fresh discovery gives warrant for any inference,—for any theory. ... That facts should be valued mainly for the principles they reveal, modern scientism could hardly understand, much less believe. [Henry N. Day, "President McCosh's Logic," The New Englander, July, 1870]
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Indo-European 

1814, coined by English polymath Thomas Young (1773-1829) and first used in an article in the "Quarterly Review," from Indo- + European. "Common to India and Europe," specifically in reference to the group of related languages and to the race or races characterized by their use. William Dwight Whitney ("The Life and Growth of Language," 1875) credits its widespread use to Franz Bopp. 

The alternative Indo-Germanic (1835) was coined in German in 1823 (indogermanisch), based on the two peoples then thought to be at the extremes of the geographic area covered by the languages, but this was before Celtic was realized also to be an Indo-European language. After this was proved, many German scholars switched to Indo-European as more accurate, but Indo-Germanic continued in use (popularized by the titles of major works) and the predominance of German scholarship in this field made it the popular term in England, too, through the 19c. See also Aryan and Japhetic.

Indo-Aryan (1850) seems to have been used only of the Aryans of India. Indo-European also was used in reference to trade between Europe and India or European colonial enterprises in India (1813).

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