Etymology
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politic (adj.)

early 15c., politike, "pertaining to public affairs, concerning the governance of a country or people," from Old French politique "political" (14c.) and directly from Latin politicus "of citizens or the state, civil, civic," from Greek politikos "of citizens, pertaining to the state and its administration; pertaining to public life," from polites "citizen," from polis "city" (see polis).

It has been replaced in most of the earliest senses by political. From mid-15c. as "prudent, judicious," originally of rulers: "characterized by policy." Body politic "a political entity, a country" (with French word order) is from late 15c.

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politic (v.)

also politick, "to engage in political activity," 1917, a back-formation from politics. Related: Politicked; politicking (for the -k- see picnic (v.)).

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politicking (n.)
1928, from present participle of politic (v.). For the -k-, see picnic.
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politico (n.)
"politician, political agent," usually in a derogatory sense, 1620s, from Italian or Spanish politico, noun use of adjective meaning "political," from Latin politicus (see politic (adj.)).
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impolitic (adj.)
"not according to good policy," c. 1600, from assimilated form of in- (1) "not, opposite of" + politic (adj.) "judicious." Related: Impoliticly. Impolicy "quality of being impolitic" is attested from 1747.
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political (adj.)

1550s, "of or pertaining to a polity, civil affairs, or government;" from Latin politicus "of citizens or the state" (see politic (adj.)) + -al (1). Meaning "taking sides in party politics" (usually pejorative) is from 1749. Political prisoner first recorded 1860; political science is from 1779 (first attested in Hume). Political animal translates Greek politikon zōon (Aristotle, "Politics," I.ii.9) "an animal intended to live in a city; a social animal."

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-ical 
compound adjectival word-forming element, usually interchangeable with -ic but sometimes with specialized sense (such as historic/historical, politic/political), Middle English, from Late Latin -icalis, from Latin -icus + -alis (see -al (1)). Probably it was needed because the forms in -ic often took on a noun sense (for example physic). Forms in -ical tend to be attested earlier in English than their twins in -ic.
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politically (adv.)

late 15c., "according to fixed laws" (rather than unlimited power of a ruler); 1580s, "in a politic manner;" 1630s "in a political manner," from politic or political + -ly (2). The first sense is obsolete, the second rare or archaic. Politically correct is attested in prevailing current sense by 1970; abbreviation P.C. is from 1986.

[T]here is no doubt that political correctness refers to the political movement and phenomenon, which began in the USA, with the aim to enforce a set of ideologies and views on gender, race and other minorities. Political correctness refers to language and ideas that may cause offence to some identity groups like women and aims at giving preferential treatment to members of those social groups in schools and universities. [Thuy Nguyen, "Political Correctness in the English Language,"2007] 
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politics (n.)
Origin and meaning of politics

1520s, "science and art of government," from politic (n.) "the political state of a country or government (early 15c.), from Old French politique and Medieval Latin politica; see politic (adj.). The plural form probably was modeled on Aristotle's ta politika "affairs of state" (plural), the name of his book on governing and governments, which was in English mid-15c. as (The Book of) Polettiques or Polytykys. Also see -ics.

Politicks is the science of good sense, applied to public affairs, and, as those are forever changing, what is wisdom to-day would be folly and perhaps, ruin to-morrow. Politicks is not a science so properly as a business. It cannot have fixed principles, from which a wise man would never swerve, unless the inconstancy of men's view of interest and the capriciousness of the tempers could be fixed. [Fisher Ames (1758-1808), "British Alliance," in the Boston Repertory, November 1806]

The sense of "political actions or practice" is from 1640s. Meaning "political allegiances or opinions of a person or party" is from 1769.

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contribution (n.)

late 14c., contribucioun, "a levy imposed by a body politic upon a district or population" (for example to pay for military defense in a border region), from Old French contribution "payment" and directly from Late Latin contributionem (nominative contributio) "a dividing, a distributing, a contribution," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin contribuere "to bring together, add, contribute," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + tribuere "to allot, pay" (see tribute).

Meaning "the act of giving in common with others" is from mid-15c. Sense of "that which is given toward a common end" is from c. 1600. Sense of "a writing for a magazine or journal" is from 1714.

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