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poor (adj.)

c. 1200, "lacking money or resources, destitute of wealth; needy, indigent;" also "small, scanty," also voluntarily and deliberately, "devoid of possessions in conformity with Christian virtues," from Old French povre "poor, wretched, dispossessed; inadequate; weak, thin" (Modern French pauvre), from Latin pauper "poor, not wealthy," from pre-Latin *pau-paros "producing little; getting little," a compound from the roots of paucus "little" (from PIE root *pau- (1) "few, little") and parare "to produce, bring forth" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").

It replaced Old English earm (from Proto-Germanic *arma-, which is of disputed origin). Late 13c. as "unfortunate, to be pitied or regretted." In contemptuous use, "morally inferior, miserable, wretched," by early 15c. Used figuratively ("spiritually poor") from early 14c. (to be poor in spirit is to be "spiritually humble"). Meaning "deficient in desirable or essential qualities" is from c. 1300. In reference to inhabited places from c. 1300; of soil, etc., from late 14c. In modest or apologetic use, "humble, slight, insignificant," from early 15c.

The poor boy sandwich, made of simple but filling ingredients, was invented and named in New Orleans in 1921. To poor mouth "deny one's advantages" is from 1965 (to make a poor mouth "whine" is Scottish dialect from 1822). Slang poor man's________ "the cheaper alternative to _______," is from 1854. Poor relation "relative or kinsman in humble circumstances" is by 1720.

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poor (n.)

"poor persons collectively," mid-12c., from poor (adj.). The Latin adjective pauper "poor" also was used in a noun sense "a poor man." Middle English used poorlet (late 14c.) "poor man, wretched person" to translate Latin paupercula in the Bible.

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poor-rate (n.)

"assessment or tax imposed by law for the relief or support of the poor in a particular community," c. 1600, from poor (n.) + rate (n.).

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poor-box (n.)

"box for receiving contributions of money for the poor," generally at the entrance of a church, 1620s, from poor (n.) + box (n.1).

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poorness (n.)

c. 1300, pouernesse, "poverty, hardship, need; state, condition, or quality of being poor," from poor (adj.) + -ness.

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poorhouse (n.)

"establishment in which persons receiving public charity are lodged and cared for," 1781, from poor (n.) + house (n.). Poor-farm "farm maintained at public expense for the housing and support of paupers" is by 1834, American English.

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poorly (adv.)

early 13c., poureliche, "inadequately, badly, insufficiently," from poor (adj.) + -ly (2). Modern form from 15c. Meaning "in poverty" is from mid-14c. Meaning "indisposed, in somewhat ill health" is from 1750.

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pauper (n.)

"very poor person, person destitute of property or means of livelihood," 1510s, from Latin pauper "poor, not wealthy, of small means" (see poor (adj.)). Originally in English a legal word, from Latin phrase in forma pauperis (late 15c.) "in the character of a poor person," used of one who is on this account allowed to sue in court without legal fees. Related: Pauperism; pauperess; pauperize.

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impoverish (v.)

early 15c., empoverischen, from Old French empoveriss-, stem of empoverir, from em- + povre "poor" (see poor (adj.)). In the same sense Middle English also had empover (early 15c., from Old French enpoverir), also poverished "made poor" (late 14c.). Related: Impoverished; impoverishing.

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felicity (n.)

late 14c., "happiness; that which is a source of happiness," from Old French felicite "happiness" (14c.), from Latin felicitatem (nominative felicitas) "happiness, fertility," from felix (genitive felicis) "happy, fortunate, fruitful, fertile" (from suffixed form of PIE *dhe(i)- "to suck," with derivatives meaning "to suckle, produce, yield").

A relic of Rome's origins as an agricultural community: that which brings happiness is that which produces crops. Compare pauper (see poor (adj.)) "poor, not wealthy," literally "producing little." The meaning "skillful adroitness, admirable propriety" is attested from c. 1600.

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