Etymology
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jump (n.)

1550s, "an act of jumping," from jump (v.). Figurative meaning "sudden abrupt rise" is from 1650s. Meaning "abrupt transition from one point to another" is from 1670s. Sense of "a parachute descent" is from 1922. Meaning "jazz music with a strong beat" first recorded 1937, in Count Basie's "One O'Clock Jump." Jump suit "one-piece coverall modeled on those worn by paratroopers and skydivers" is from 1948. To get a jump on "get ahead, get moving" is from 1910, perhaps a figurative use from the jump-spark that ignites an engine.

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jump (v.)

1520s, "make a spring from the ground" (intransitive), a word with no apparent source in Old or Middle English, perhaps imitative (compare bump (v.)); another theory derives it from words in Gallo-Roman dialects of southwestern France (such as jumba "to rock, to balance, swing," yumpa "to rock") and says it might have been picked up during the Hundred Years War. Similarities have been noted to Swedish dialectal gumpa "spring, jump," German dialectal gampen "jump, hop," but OED finds no basis for a relationship.

It has superseded native leap, bound, and spring in most senses. Meaning "pass abruptly from one state to another" is from 1570s. Meaning "move suddenly with a leap" is from 1724. The transitive meaning "to attack, pounce upon" is from 1789; that of "to do the sex act with" is from 1630s. Related: Jumped; jumping.

Sense in checkers is from 1862. To jump to "obey readily" is from 1886. To jump to a conclusion is from 1704. To jump rope is from 1853; Jumping-rope (n.) is from 1805. Basketball jump-shot "shot made while the player is in the air" is from 1934; also used of billiard shots. Jump in a lake as a dismissive invitation is attested from 1912.

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pole (n.2)

"northern or southern end of Earth's axis," late 14c., from Old French pole or directly from Latin polus "end of an axis;" also "the sky, the heavens" (a sense sometimes used in English from 16c.), from Greek polos "pivot, axis of a sphere, the sky," from PIE *kwol- "turn round" (PIE *kw- becomes Greek p- before some vowels), from root *kwel- (1) "revolve, move round."

Originally principally in reference to the celestial sphere and the fixed points about which (by the revolution of the Earth) the stars appear to revolve; also sometimes of the terrestrial poles (poles of this world), the two points on the Earth's surface which mark the axis of rotation.

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Pole (n.)

"inhabitant or native of Poland," 1650s, from German Pole, singular of Polen, from Polish Polanie "Poles," literally "field-dwellers," from pole "field," related to Old Church Slavonic polje "field" (from PIE root *pele- (2) "flat; to spread"). The older word was Polack.

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pole (n.1)

"stake, staff," late Old English pal "stake, pole, post," a general Germanic borrowing (Old Frisian and Old Saxon pal "stake," Middle Dutch pael, Dutch paal, Old High German pfal, Old Norse pall) from Latin palus "a stake," from PIE *pakslo-, suffixed form of root *pag- "to fasten." Later specifically "a long, slender, tapering piece of wood."

Racing sense of "inside pole-fence surrounding a course" is from 1851; hence pole position in auto racing (1904). A ten-foot pole as a metaphoric measure of something one would not touch something (or someone) else with is by 1839, American English. The ten-foot pole was a common tool used to set stakes for fences, etc., and the phrase "Can't touch de bottom with a ten foot pole" is in the popular old minstrel show song "Camptown Races."

"I saw her eat."
"No very unnatural occurrence I should think."
"But she ate an onion!"
"Right my boy, right, never marry a woman who would touch an onion with a ten foot pole."
[The Collegian, University of Virginia, June 1839]
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pole (v.)

1570s, "to furnish with poles (for support)," from pole (n.1). Meaning "to push with a pole" is from 1753. Related: Poled; poling.

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jump-start (v.)

also jumpstart, "to start a car engine using battery booster cables," by 1970; see jump (n.) + start (v.). The sense of jump is that in the jump-spark ignition system, attested from 1883 in gas-lighting, from c. 1902 as a common way to start an automobile; hence also jumper "wire used to cut out ('jump over') part of a circuit or to close a gap," a sense attested from 1901 in telegraphy. Related: Jumpstarted; jumpstarting. Figurative use by 1975. Jump-leads "jumper-cables" is from 1969; jumper-cables from 1961.

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pole-vault (n.)

"a jump over a horizontal bar by means of a pole," 1877, from pole (n.1) + vault (n.2). As a verb from 1892 (implied in pole-vaulting). Related: Pole-vaulted; pole-vaulter.

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pole-star (n.)

the North Star, the brightest star situated near the north pole of the heavens (see Polaris), 1550s, from pole (n.2) + star (n.).

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vault (v.1)

"jump or leap over," especially by aid of the hands or a pole, 1530s, transitive (implied in vaulting); 1560s, intransitive, from French volter "to gambol, leap," from Italian voltare "to turn," from Vulgar Latin *volvitare "to turn, leap," frequentative of Latin volvere "to turn, turn around, roll" (from PIE root *wel- (3) "to turn, revolve"). Related: Vaulted; vaulting.

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