late 14c., "a feather" (especially a large and conspicuous one), from Old French plume "soft feather, down; feather bed," and directly from Latin pluma "a small soft feather, down; the first beard," from PIE root *pleus- "to pluck; a feather, fleece" (source of Old English fleos "fleece"). Meaning "a long streamer of smoke, etc." is attested from 1878.
late 14c., "to pluck, strip," from plume (n.). From mid-15c. as "to adorn with plumes." Meaning "to dress the feathers" is from 1702. Related: Plumed; pluming.
"dealer in ornamental feathers, one who prepares plumes for ornamental purposes," 1590s, from French plumassier, from plumasse "plume of feather," from plume (see plume (n.)). Earlier was plumer "dealer in feathers" (late 13c.).
late 14c., "the feathery covering of birds; feathers collectively," from Old French plumage "plumage, appearance" (14c.), from plume (see plume (n.)). Related: Plumaged.
1550s, "a tuft or plume of feathers," especially as worn in a hat or helmet, from French pennache "tuft of feathers," from Italian pennaccio, from Late Latin pinnaculum "small wing, gable, peak" (see pinnacle). Figurative sense of "display, swagger" is recorded from 1898 (in translation of "Cyrano de Bergerac"), from French.
also chako, cylindrical soldier's headdress with plume or pompon, 1815, from Hungarian csákó, short for csákós süveg "peaked cap," from adjectival form of csákó "peak, projecting point of a cow's horn," which some European etymologists derive from German zacken "point, spike," but which Hungarian sources regard as of unknown origin. Worn by infantry soldiers in 18c.-19c.
late 13c., penne, "writing implement made from the hard, hollow stem at the base of a feather," from Old French pene "quill pen; feather" (12c.) and directly from Latin penna "a feather, plume," in plural "a wing," in Late Latin, "a pen for writing," from Old Latin petna, pesna, from PIE *pet-na-, suffixed form of root *pet- "to rush; to fly."
In later French, this word means only "long feather of a bird," while the equivalent of English plume is used for "writing implement;" the senses of the two words in French thus are reversed from the situation in English.
In Middle English also "a feather," especially a large one from the wing or tail. The sense was extended to any instrument of similar form used for writing by means of fluid ink. Pen-and-ink (adj.) "made or done with a pen and ink" is attested from 1670s. Pen name "fictitious name assumed by an author" is by 1857 (French nom de plume was used in English from 1823). Southey uses pen-gossip (v.) "to gossip by correspondence" (1818).
type of songbird, Old English þræsce, variant of þrysce, from Proto-Germanic *thruskjon (source also of Old Norse þröstr, Norwegian trost, Old High German drosca), from PIE *trozdo- (source also of Latin turdus, Lithuanian strazdas "thrush," Middle Irish truid, Welsh drudwy "starling," Old Church Slavonic drozgu, Russian drozdu).
An aged thrush, frail, gaunt, and small,
In blast-beruffled plume,
Had chosen thus to fling his soul
Upon the growing gloom.
[Hardy, "The Darkling Thrush," Dec. 31, 1900]
early 14c., "highest part of a helmet," an extended sense, from Old French creste "tuft or tuft-like growth on the top of an animal's head, comb" (12c., Modern French crête), from Latin crista "tuft, plume," which is derived from the same source as words for "hair" (such as crinis, crispus), but it also was used for crest of a cock or the upright ornaments of a helmet. Said by Watkins to be from an extended form of PIE root *sker- (2) "to turn, bend." Replaced Old English hris.
The "tuft of an animal" sense is from late 14c. in English.Meaning "highest part of a hill or mountain range" is from late 14c.