Etymology
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plastic (n.)

1905, "solid substance that can be molded," originally of dental molds, from plastic (adj.). The main current meaning, "synthetic product made from oil derivatives," is recorded by 1909, used in this sense by Leo Baekeland (see Bakelite).

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plastic (adj.)

1630s, "capable of shaping or molding a mass of matter," from Latin plasticus, from Greek plastikos "fit for molding, capable of being molded into various forms; pertaining to molding," also in reference to the arts, from plastos "molded, formed," verbal adjective from plassein "to mold" (see plasma). Related: Plastically.

Hence "capable of change or of receiving a new direction" (1791). The surgical sense of "remedying a deficiency of structure" is recorded by 1839 (in plastic surgery). Meaning "made of plastic" is from 1909; this was picked up in counterculture slang and given an extended meaning "false, superficial" (1963). Plastic explosive (n.) "explosive material with a putty-like consistency" is attested from 1894.

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surgery (n.)

c. 1300, sirgirie, "medical treatment of an operative nature, such as cutting-operations, setting of fractures, etc.," from Old French surgerie, surgeure, contraction of serurgerie, from Late Latin chirurgia "surgery," from Greek kheirourgia, from kheirourgos "working or done by hand," from kheir "hand" (from PIE root *ghes- "the hand") + ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do").

According to OED, the British sense of "session at which a Member of Parliament (or other public servant) is available locally to be consulted by constituents" is by 1951, from an extended sense in medical practice of "regular session at which a doctor receives patients for consultation" in a room or den set aside for that purpose called a surgery (by 1846). The word has been extended in Britain to other free consultations for advice.

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rhinoplasty (n.)

"plastic surgery of the nose," 1828, from rhino- "nose" + -plasty. Related: rhinoplastic (1823).

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-plasty 
word-forming element meaning "act or process of forming," also "plastic surgery" applied to a specific part, from Greek -plastia, from plastos "molded, formed," verbal adjective from plassein "to mold" (see plasma).
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microsurgery (n.)

"surgery so delicate as to require the use of a microscope," 1912, from micro- + surgery. Related: Microsurgical.

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thermoplastic (adj.)
1870, see thermo- + plastic (adj.). As a noun from 1929.
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Plasticine 

proprietary name of a modeling clay substitute, 1897, from plastic (adj.) + -ine (2).

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polyurethane (n.)

type of synthetic resin or plastic made from polymers, 1944, from polymer + urethane.

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prosthetics (n.)

"the branch of surgery concerned with the replacement of missing or defective parts of the body," 1894, from prosthetic; also see -ics.

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