"multi-vehicle crash," 1929, from verbal phrase pile up "to heap up" (c. 1400), which is attested from 1849 as "to accumulate," 1899 as "to wreck in a heap" (see pile (v.)).
"to heap (up), lay or throw in a heap," c. 1400, from pile (n.1). Related: Piled; piling. Figurative verbal phrase pile on "attack vigorously, attack en masse," is attested by 1894, American English. To pile in "climb or go on or into in a crowd" is by 1841; hence, for the reverse process, pile out, by 1896.
early 15c., "heap or stack of something," usually consisting of an indefinite number of separate objects arranged in a more or less regular conical or pyramidal form, from Old French pile "a heap, a stack," and directly from Latin pila "a pillar," also "stone barrier, pier" (see pillar).
The sense development in Latin would have been from "pier, harbor wall of stones," to "something heaped up." Middle English pile also could mean "pillar supporting something, pier of a bridge" (mid-15c.). In English, the verb in the sense of "to heap (up)" is recorded from c.1400.
Middle English also had a noun pile meaning "castle, tower, stronghold (late 14c.), which persisted in a sense of "large building." OED regards this as a separate word, of doubtful origin, but other sources treat them as the same.
late Old English pil "sharp stake or stick," also, poetically, "arrow, dart," from Latin pilum, the name of the heavy javelin of the Roman foot soldier (source of Old Norse pila, Old High German pfil, German Pfeil "arrow"), a word of uncertain origin. De Vaan finds the identification of it with the pilum that means "pestle, pounder" (from *pis-tlo-, from the root of pinsere "to crush, pound;" see pestle) to be defensible.
In engineering and architecture, "a heavy timber beam, pointed or not, driven into the soil for support of a structure or as part of a wall." It also has meant "pointed head of a staff, pike, arrow, etc." (1590s) and the word is more or less confused with some of the sense under pile (n.1).
mid-14c., "downy plumage;" late 15c, "fine, soft hair," from Anglo-French pyle or Middle Dutch pijl, both from Latin pilus "a hair" (source of Italian pelo, Old French pel), a word of uncertain origin. Phonological evidence rules out transmission of the English word via Old French cognate peil, poil. Meaning "soft, raised surface of a regular and closely set kind upon cloth" is from 1560s.
"that which is up," 1530s, from up (adv.). Phrase on the up-(and-up) "honest, straightforward" first attested 1863, American English.
Old English up, uppe, from Proto-Germanic *upp- "up" (source also of Old Frisian, Old Saxon up "up, upward," Old Norse upp; Danish, Dutch op; Old High German uf, German auf "up"; Gothic iup "up, upward," uf "on, upon, under;" Old High German oba, German ob "over, above, on, upon"), from PIE root *upo "under," also "up from under," hence also "over."
As a preposition, "to a higher place" from c. 1500; also "along, through" (1510s), "toward" (1590s). Often used elliptically for go up, come up, rise up, etc. Up the river "in jail" first recorded 1891, originally in reference to Sing Sing, which is up the Hudson from New York City. To drive someone up the wall (1951) is from the notion of the behavior of lunatics or caged animals. Insulting retort up yours (scil. ass) is attested by late 19c.
prefix with various senses, from Old English up (adv.), corresponding to similar prefixes in other Germanic languages.
1550s, "to drive and catch (swans)," from up (adv.). Intransitive meaning "get up, rise to one's feet" (as in up and leave) is recorded from 1640s. Sense of "to move upward" is recorded from 1737. Meaning "increase" (as in up the price of oil) is attested from 1915. Compare Old English verb uppian "to rise up, swell." Related: Upped; upping. Upping block, used for mounting or dismounting horses, carriages, etc., is attested from 1796 (earlier was horsing-block, 1660s).
c. 1300, "dwelling inland or upland," from up (adv.). Meaning "going up" is from 1784. From 1815 as "excited, exhilarated, happy," hence "enthusiastic, optimistic." Up-and-coming "promising" is from 1848. Musical up-tempo (adj.) is recorded from 1948.