Etymology
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philosopher (n.)

early 14c., philosophre, "scholar, learned person, wise person; one devoted to the search for universal truth, a student of metaphysical and moral sciences," replacing Old English philosophe, from Latin philosophus "philosopher," from Greek philosophos "philosopher, sage, one who speculates on the nature of things and truth," literally "lover of wisdom," from philos "loving" (see philo-) + sophos "wise; a sage" (see sophist). The form with -er is from an Anglo-French or Old French variant of philosophe with an agent-noun ending. Fem. forms were philosophress (1630s), philosophess (1660s).

Pythagoras was the first who called himself philosophos, instead of sophos, 'wise man,' since this latter term was suggestive of immodesty. [Klein]

Philosopher in the Middle Ages also could be "alchemist, magician, diviner," hence Philosophers' stone (late 14c., translating Medieval Latin lapis philosophorum, early 12c.), a reputed solid substance supposed by alchemists to change baser metals into gold or silver; also identified with the elixir and thus given the attribute of prolonging life indefinitely and curing wounds and disease. In French pierre philosophale, in German der Stein der Weisen.

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philosophe (n.)

also philosoph, "Enlightenment rationalist and skeptic," especially in reference to any of the French Encyclopædists, often disparaging or with contemptuous implication (when used by believers), 1774, from French philosophe, literally "philosopher" (Old French filosofe; see philosopher). Usually italicized in English, but nativized by Peter Gay ("The Enlightenment," 1966) and others. Also compare philosophist. It also was the older word for "philosopher" in English, from Old English to c. 1400.

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Hegelian (adj.)
1832, "pertaining to German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel" (1770-1831). As a noun from 1836.
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Frobelian 
in reference to kindergarten, 1873 in English, from name of German philosopher and education reformer Friedrich Fröbel (1782-1852) + -ian.
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Maimonides 

Spanish-Hebrew theologian and philosopher (1135-1204) noted as a reformer of Judaic tradition. Related: Maimonidean.

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philosophist (n.)

"a would-be philosopher," a disparaging term for a rationalist or skeptic, a philosophe; 1798, from French philosophiste; see philosophy + -ist.

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Leibnitz 
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (also Leibniz), 1646-1716, German philosopher and mathematician, independent inventor (Newton was the other) of differential and integral calculus.
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self-actualization (n.)

"realization or fulfillment of oneself," 1939, from self- + actualization. Popularized, though not coined, by U.S. psychologist and philosopher Abraham H. Maslow.

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Swedenborgian 
1791, from name of Emanuel Svedberg, Swedish mystic and religious philosopher (1668-1772). His followers organized 1788 as The New Church.
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Lucretius 
Roman masc. proper name, originally the name of a Roman gens. The Epicurean philosopher-poet was Titus Lucretius Carus (c. 98-55 B.C.E.). Hence Lucretian (1712).
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