Etymology
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penalty (n.)

c. 1500, "punishment," from Old French penalite and directly from Medieval Latin penalitatem (nominative penalitas), from Latin poenalis "pertaining to punishment" (see penal). Specifically as "the punishment laid out by law or judicial decision for a violation of the law" is by 1510s (also later for non-fulfillment or violation of an obligation or agreement). The sporting sense of "disadvantage imposed on a competitor for a breach of the rules" is by 1885; the ice hockey penalty box is attested by 1931.

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fine (v.)
late 13c., "pay as a ransom or penalty," from fine (n.). Inverted meaning "to punish by pecuniary penalty" is from 1550s. Related: Fined; fining.
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subpoena (n.)
early 15c., sub pena, from Medieval Latin sub poena "under penalty," the first words of the writ commanding the presence of someone under penalty of failure, from Latin sub "under" (see sub-) + poena, ablative of poena "penalty" (see penal). The verb is attested from 1630s.
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punish (v.)

c. 1300, punishen, "inflict a penalty on," from Old French puniss-, extended present-participle stem of punir "to punish," from Latin punire "punish, correct, chastise; take vengeance for; inflict a penalty on, cause pain for some offense," earlier poenire, from poena "penalty, punishment" (see penal). Colloquial meaning "to inflict heavy damage or loss" is recorded from 1801, originally in pugilism. Related: Punished; punishing.

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Ate 
Greek goddess or personification of infatuation and blundering mischief, from ate "damage, ruin; guilt; blindness, dazzlement, infatuation; penalty, fine," which is of uncertain origin.
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sanctions (n.)

in international diplomacy, by 1900, plural of sanction (n.) in the sense of "part or clause of a law which spells out the penalty for breaking it" (1650s).

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amends (n.)
early 14c., "recompense, compensation for loss or injury," collective singular, from Old French amendes "fine, penalty, reparation, compensation," plural of amende "reparation," from amender "to amend" (see amend).
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forfeiture (n.)
mid-14c., "loss of property as punishment for a crime, debt, etc.," from Old French forfaiture "crime, transgression; penalty for committing a crime" (12c.), from forfait (see forfeit (n.)).
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sanction (v.)
1778, "confirm by sanction, make valid or binding;" 1797 as "to permit authoritatively;" from sanction (n.). Seemingly contradictory meaning "impose a penalty on" is from 1956 but is rooted in an old legalistic sense of the noun. Related: Sanctioned; sanctioning.
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holding (n.)
early 13c., "act of holding;" mid-15c. as "that which is held," verbal noun of hold (v.). Old English healding meant "keeping, observance." As a football (soccer) penalty, from 1866. Meaning "property held," especially stock shares, is from 1570s. Holding operation is from 1942.
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