Etymology
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parable (n.)

"allegorical or metaphorical narrative, usually having a moral for instruction," late 13c., parabol, modern form from early 14c., "saying or story in which something is expressed in terms of something else," from Old French parable "parable, parabolic style in writing" (13c.), from Latin parabola "comparison," from Greek parabolē "a comparison, parable," literally "a throwing beside," hence "a juxtaposition," from para- "alongside" (see para- (1)) + bolē "a throwing, casting, beam, ray," related to ballein "to throw" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach").

Rendered in Old English as bispell. In Vulgar Latin, parabola took on the meaning "word," hence Italian parlare, French parler "to speak" (see parley (n.)).

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parabolic (adj.)

mid-15c., parabolik, "figurative, allegorical, of or pertaining to a parable or a parabole," from Medieval Latin parabolicus, from late Greek parabolikos "figurative," from parabolē "comparison" (see parable). In geometry, "of or pertaining to a parabola," by 1702 (see parabola). Related: Parabolical.

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parabole (n.)

in rhetoric, "comparison, metaphor," according to Century Dictionary, "especially a formal simile, as in poetry or poetic prose, taken from a present or imagined object or event: distinguished from a paradigm, or comparison with a real past event," 1580s, from Greek parabolē "comparison" (see parable).

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parley (n.)

"conference, conversation, speech," especially with an enemy, mid-15c., parlai, from Old French parlée, from fem. past participle of Old French parler "to speak" (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *paraulare, from Late Latin parabolare "to speak (in parables)," from parabola "speech, discourse," from Latin parabola "comparison" (see parable).

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parole (n.)

1610s, "word of honor," especially "promise by a prisoner of war not to escape if allowed to go about at liberty, or not to take up arms again if allowed to return home," from French parole "word, speech" (in parole d'honneur "word of honor") from Vulgar Latin *paraula "speech, discourse," from Latin parabola "comparison," from Greek parabole "a comparison, parable," literally "a throwing beside," hence "a juxtaposition" (see parable). Sense of "conditional release of a prisoner before full term" is attested by 1908 in criminal slang.

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parabola (n.)

"a curve commonly defined as the intersection of a cone with a plane parallel with its side," 1570s, from Modern Latin parabola, from Greek parabole "a comparison, parable," literally "a throwing beside," hence "a juxtaposition" (see parable), so called by Apollonius of Perga c. 210 B.C.E. because it is produced by "application" of a given area to a given straight line. It had a different sense in Pythagorean geometry. Related: Parabolic.

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palaver (n.)

1733 (implied in palavering), "a long talk, a conference, a tedious discussion," sailors' slang, from Portuguese palavra "word, speech, talk," from a metathesis of Late Latin parabola "speech, discourse," from Latin parabola "comparison" (see parable). A doublet of parole.

In West Africa the Portuguese word became a traders' term for "negotiating with the natives," and apparently English picked up the word there. (The Spanish cognate, palabra, appears 16c.-17c. in Spanish phrases used in English.) The meaning "idle profuse talk" is recorded by 1748. The verb, "indulge in palaver," is by 1733, from the noun. Related: Palavering.

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*gwele- 

*gwelə-, also *gwel-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to throw, reach," with extended sense "to pierce."

It forms all or part of: anabolic; arbalest; astrobleme; ball (n.2) "dancing party;" ballad; ballet; ballista; ballistic; ballistics; belemnite; catabolism; devil; diabolical; discobolus; emblem; embolism; hyperbola; hyperbole; kill (v.); metabolism; palaver; parable; parabola; parley; parliament; parlor; parol; parole; problem; quell; quail (v.) "lose heart, shrink, cower;" symbol.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit apa-gurya "swinging," balbaliti "whirls, twirls;" Greek ballein "to throw, to throw so as to hit," also in a looser sense, "to put, place, lay," bole "a throw, beam, ray," belemnon "dart, javelin," belone "needle," ballizein "to dance;" Armenian kelem "I torture;" Old Church Slavonic zali "pain;" Lithuanian galas "end," gėla "agony," gelti "to sting."

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lazar (n.)

"filthy beggar, leper," c. 1300, from Medieval Latin lazarus "leper," from Lazarus (q.v.), the name of the beggar in the biblical parable. Sometimes also lazard, with pejorative suffix.

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Dives 

traditional name for a rich man, late 14c., from Latin dives "rich (man)," related to divus "divine," and originally meaning "favored by the gods" (see divine (adj.)). Also compare Dis. It was used in Luke xvi in Vulgate and from this it has been commonly mistaken as the proper name of the man in the parable. 

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