Etymology
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overturn (v.)

early 13c., of a wheel, "to rotate, roll over," from over- + turn (v.). Attested from c. 1300 in general transitive sense "to throw over violently;" figurative meaning "to ruin, destroy" is from late 14c. Of judicial decisions, "to reverse," it is attested from 1826. Related: Overturned; overturning. Old English had oferweorpan "to overturn, overthrow."

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revolt (v.)

1540s, "cast off allegiance, rise against rulers, break away from established authority," from French revolter (15c.), which is from or cognate with Italian rivoltare "to overthrow, overturn," from Vulgar Latin *revolvitare "to overturn, overthrow," frequentative of Latin revolvere (past participle revolutus) "turn, roll back" (see revolve). Related: Revolted; revolting.

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subvert (v.)
late 14c., "to raze, destroy, overthrow, undermine, overturn," from Old French subvertir "overthrow, destroy" (13c.), or directly from Latin subvertere "to turn upside down, overturn, overthrow," from sub "under" (see sub-) + vertere "to turn, turn back, be turned; convert, transform, translate; be changed" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend"). Related: Subverted; subverting.
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overset (n.)

"an overturn, ruin," mid-15c., from over- + set (v.). The verb, "to turn over, cause to capsize," is from 1590s; earlier it meant "to oppress" (c. 1200), "to overpower" (late 14c.). Related: Overset; oversetting.

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welt (n.)
early 15c., a shoemaker's term, perhaps related to Middle English welten "to overturn, roll over" (c. 1300), from Old Norse velta "to roll" (related to welter (v.)). Meaning "ridge on the skin from a wound" is first recorded 1800.
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overthrow (v.)

c. 1300, ouerthrouen, "to knock down, throw down, cast headlong," from over- + throw (v.). Figurative sense of "to cast down from power, defeat" is attested from late 14c. Related: Overthrown; overthrowing. Earlier in same senses was Middle English overwerpen "to overturn (something), overthrow; destroy," from Old English oferweorpan (see warp (v.)).

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upset (v.)
mid-15c., "to set up, fix," from up (adv.) + set (v.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch opsetten "set up, propose," German aufsetzen. Modern sense of "overturn, capsize" (1803) is that of obsolete overset. In reference to the stomach, from 1834. Meaning "to throw into mental discomposure" is from 1805. Related: Upsetting.
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catastrophe (n.)

1530s, "reversal of what is expected" (especially a fatal turning point in a drama, the winding up of the plot), from Latin catastropha, from Greek katastrophe "an overturning; a sudden end," from katastrephein "to overturn, turn down, trample on; to come to an end," from kata "down" (see cata-) + strephein "turn" (from PIE root *streb(h)- "to wind, turn"). Extension to "sudden disaster" is first recorded 1748.

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capsize (v.)

1758, intransitive, "to tip or turn over;" 1769, transitive, "to turn (a vessel) over, cause to overturn, turn (anything) topsy-turvy;" a nautical word of obscure origin, perhaps (as Skeat suggests) from Spanish capuzar "to sink by the head," from cabo "head," from Latin caput "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head"). For sense, compare French chavirer "to capsize, upset," faire capot "capsize;" Provençal cap virar "to turn the head." Related: Capsized; capsizing.

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tip (v.1)
c. 1300, "to knock down, overturn, topple, knock askew" (transitive), of uncertain origin, possibly from Scandinavian (compare Swedish tippa "to tip, dump"), or from a special use of tip (n.). Intransitive sense of "to fall over, be overturned" is from mid-15c. Related: Tipped; tipping. To tip the scales at "weigh (so much" is from 1879. Tipping point attested by 1972. To tip (one's) hand "reveal one's intentions" is from 1907, an image from poker-playing.
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