"rapid stream," c. 1600, from French torrent (16c.) and directly from Latin torrentem (nominative torrens) "rushing, roaring" (of streams), also "a rushing stream," originally as an adjective "roaring, boiling, burning, parching, hot, inflamed," present participle of torrere "to parch" (from PIE root *ters- "to dry"). Extension to any onrush (of words, feelings, etc.) first recorded 1640s.
Storm-wind is from 1798. Storm-door first recorded 1872; storm-water is from 1847; storm-window is attested from 1824. Storm surge attested from 1872. Adverbial phrase _______ up a storm is from 1946.
mid-14c., "a charge, an onrush," from shake (v.). The meaning "a hard shock, concussion" is from 1560s; it is attested from 1580s as "act of shaking, a rapid jolt or jerk one way and then another;" by 1660s as "irregular vibration."
The hand-grip salutation is so called by 1712. A shake as a figure of a brief moment or instantaneous action is recorded by 1816; the exact shake intended is uncertain. OED's 1816 citation is in the shake of a hand and might be partly literal. The noun also meant "a trill in music." The version two (or three) shakes of a lamb's tail (1852) seems to be a U.S. dialect elaboration of the older use, earlier of a sheep's tail (Boston Weekly Globe, March 29, 1843, which identifies it as "a homely adage").
The phrase fair shake "an honest deal" is attested from 1830, American English (Bartlett calls it "A New England vulgarism"). The shakes "nervous agitation" is from 1620s; the sense of "trembling fit; intermittent fever" is by 1782. Shake as short for milk shake is attested by 1911. Dismissive phrase no great shakes (1816, Byron), indicating things of no account, perhaps is from dicing.