Etymology
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Norse (n.)

1590s, "a Norwegian," from obsolete Dutch Noorsch (adj.) "Norwegian," a reduced form of noordsch "northern, nordic," from noord "north" (see north). Also in some cases borrowed from cognate Danish or Norwegian norsk. As a language of the north (spoken and written in Norway, Iceland, etc.), from 1680s. Old Norse attested from 1844. An Old English word for "a Norwegian" was Norðman. As an adjective from 1768.

In Old French, Norois as a noun meant "a Norse, Norseman," also "action worth of a man from the North (i.e. usually considered as deceitful)" [Hindley, et. al.]; as an adjective it meant "northern, Norse, Norwegian," also "proud, fierce, fiery, strong."

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old (adj.)

Old English ald (Anglian), eald (West Saxon, Kentish) "antique, of ancient origin, belonging to antiquity, primeval; long in existence or use; near the end of the normal span of life; elder, mature, experienced," from Proto-Germanic *althaz "grown up, adult" (source also of Old Frisian ald, Gothic alþeis, Dutch oud, German alt), originally a past-participle stem of a verb meaning "grow, nourish" (compare Gothic alan "to grow up," Old Norse ala "to nourish"), from PIE root *al- (2) "to grow, nourish." The original Old English vowel is preserved in Scots auld, also in alderman. The original comparative and superlative (elder, eldest) are retained in particular uses.

The usual PIE root is *sen- (see senior (adj.)). A few Indo-European languages distinguish words for "old" (vs. young) from words for "old" (vs. new), and some have separate words for aged persons as opposed to old things. Latin senex was used of aged living things, mostly persons, while vetus (literally "having many years") was used of inanimate things. Greek geraios was used mostly of humans; palaios was used mostly of things, of persons only in a derogatory sense. Greek also had arkhaios, literally "belonging to the beginning," which parallels French ancien, used mostly with reference to things "of former times."

Old English also had fyrn "ancient," which is related to Old English feor "far, distant" (see far, and compare Gothic fairneis, Old Norse forn "old, of old, of former times," Old High German firni "old, experienced").

Meaning "of a specified age" (three days old) is from late Old English. Sense of "pertaining to or characteristic of the earlier or earliest of two or more stages of development or periods of time" is from late Old English. As an intensive, "great, high," mid-15c., now only following another adjective (gay old time, good old Charlie Brown). As a noun, "those who are old," 12c. Of old "of old times" is from late 14c.

Old age "period of life of advanced years" is from early 14c. Old Testament is attested from mid-14c. (in late Old English it was old law). Old lady "wife, mother" is attested from c. 1775 (but compare Old English seo ealde hlæfdige "the queen dowager"). Old man "man who has lived long" is from late Old English; the sense of "husband, father, boss" is from 1854, earlier (1830) it was military slang for "commanding officer;" old boy as a familiar form of address is by c. 1600. Old days "former times" is from late Old English; good old days, "former times conceived as better than the present," sometimes ironic, is by 1670s. Old Light (adj.), in religion, "favoring the old faith or principles," is by 1819.

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old-school (adj.)

in reference to a group of people noted for conservative views or principles on some professional or political matter, 1806, from the noun phrase, "party belonging to a former time or having the characteristics, manner, and opinions of a bygone age" (1749); see old + school (n.).

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Old English (n.)

1701 as a typeface, from old + English. It was used to meaning "the Anglo-Saxon language before the Conquest, old-fashioned or archaic English" in a c. 1200 account of the native (as opposed to Latin) month names, but the modern linguistic use is from 19c. (see Middle English).

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old maid (n.)

"spinster, woman who remains single well beyond the usual marrying age," 1520s, from old + maid. The card game is attested by that name from 1831. 

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old-world (adj.)

1712, "belonging to a prehistoric age," see old + world. Meaning "of or pertaining to Eurasia and Africa," as opposed to the Americas, is by 1877. The noun phrase Old World in this sense is by 1590s. The division of the earth into Old World and New World among Europeans dates to 1503 and Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's use of Latin Mundus Novus for the lands of the western hemisphere found by Columbus and others, indicating they were not part of Asia.

The Known World is usually divided into four Parts, Europe, Asia, Africk and America. But it is a most unequal Division, and I think it more rational to divide it thus. Viz. the Known World, first into two Parts, the Old and the New World; then the Old World into three, Europe, Asia, and Africa; and the New into two, the Northern and Southern America. [Guy Miege, "A New Cosmography, or Survey of the Whole World," London, 1682]
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old-time (adj.)

"of long standing; having the characteristics of former times," 1824, from old + time (n.). Related: Old-timey (1850). Old times "olden days" is from late 14c. Colloquial old-timer "one who has long occupied a given place or condition; one who retains the views and customs of former times" is by 1860.

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old-fashioned (adj.)

1650s, "in an outdated style, formed in a fashion that has become obsolete," from old + past participle of fashion (v.). Meaning "partaking of the old ways, suited to the tastes of former times" is from 1680s. Related: Old-fashionedness. New-fashioned is recorded from 1610s.

As a type of cocktail, Old Fashioned is attested by 1901, American English, short for a fuller name.

Old Fashioned Tom Gin Cocktail Mix same as Holland Gin Old Fashioned Cocktail using Old Tom gin in place of Holland [George J. Kappeler, "Modern American Drinks," Akron, Ohio, 1900]

(Old Tom (1821) was a name for a strong variety of English gin.)

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old hat (adj.)

"out of date," 1911, from old + hat. As a noun phrase, however, it had different sense previously. The "Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue" (1796) defines it as, "a woman's privities, because frequently felt."

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