c. 1400, representacioun, "image, likeness symbolic memorial," from Old French representacion (14c.) and directly from Latin repraesentationem (nominative repraesentatio), "a bringing before one, a showing or exhibiting," noun of action from past-participle stem of repraesentare "show, exhibit, display" (see represent (v.)).
The sense of "act of presenting to the mind or imagination" is attested by 1640s. The meaning "statement made in regard to some matter" is from 1670s. Legislative sense of "fact of representing or being represented" is by 1769, thus "share or participation in legislation, etc., by means of regularly chosen or appointed delegates; the system by which communities and societies have a voice in their own affairs and the making of their laws."
c. 1300, "to count," from Old French nombrer "to count, reckon," from nombre (n.) "number" (see number (n.)). Meaning "to assign a distinctive number to" is late 14c.; that of "to ascertain the number of" is from early 15c. Related: Numbered; numbering.
Meaning "set of correlated principles, facts, ideas, etc." first recorded 1630s. Meaning "animal body as an organized whole, sum of the vital processes in an organism" is recorded from 1680s; hence figurative phrase to get (something) out of one's system (1900). Computer sense of "group of related programs" is recorded from 1963. All systems go (1962) is from U.S. space program. The system "prevailing social order" is from 1806.
c. 1300, "sum, aggregate of a collection," from Anglo-French noumbre, Old French nombre and directly from Latin numerus "a number, quantity," from PIE root *nem- "assign, allot; take."
Meaning "written symbol or figure of arithmetic value" is from late 14c. Meaning "single (numbered) issue of a magazine" is from 1795. Colloquial sense of "a person or thing" is by 1894. Meaning "dialing combination to reach a particular telephone receiver" is from 1879; hence wrong number (1886). The modern meaning "musical selection" (1885) is from vaudeville theater programs, where acts were marked by a number. Earlier numbers meant "metrical sound or utterance, measured or harmonic expression" (late 15c.) and, from 1580s, "poetical measure, poetry, verse."
Number one "oneself" is from 1704 (mock-Italian form numero uno attested from 1973); the biblical Book of Numbers (c. 1400, Latin Numeri, Greek Arithmoi) is so called because it begins with a census of the Israelites. Childish slang number one and number two for "urination" and "defecation" attested from 1902. Number cruncher is 1966, of machines; 1971 of persons. To get or have (someone's) number "have someone figured out" is attested from 1853; to say one's number is up (1806) meaning "one's time has come" is a reference to the numbers on a lottery, draft, etc. The numbers "illegal lottery" is from 1897, American English.
library classification system that organizes information into 10 broad areas subdivided numerically into progressively smaller topics, by 1885, named for Melvil Dewey (1851-1931) who proposed it 1876 while acting librarian of Amherst College. He also crusaded for simplified spelling and the metric system.
1701, "the science of sound-signs, representation of vocal sounds," from phono- "sound, voice" + -graphy "writing, recording." From 1840 as "representation of words as they are pronounced," specifically in reference to Pitman's system of shorthand by phonetic writing. By 1861 as "the automatic recording of sounds" by a phonautograph, later "recording or reproduction of sounds by a phonograph" (1880s).
"writing falsely ascribed to someone," 1828 (in German from 1809), from Late Latin pseudographus, from Greek pseudographos "writer of falsehoods," from pseudo- (see pseudo-) + graphos "(something) drawn or written" (see -graphy). Pseudography was in English from 1570s with a sense of "bad spelling; incorrect system or method of graphic representation."