Etymology
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Muhammad 

by 1896, a correction of Mohammed (1610s), the Arabic masc. proper name, literally "the Praiseworthy," name of the prophet of Islam (c. 570-632). The earliest forms of his name in English were Mahum, Mahimet (c. 1200). The word in English was originally also used confusedly for "an idol." Wyclif has Macamethe (c. 1380), and Makomete also turns up in 14c. documents. Mahomet was common until 19c.; see Mohammed. The story of Muhammad and the mountain is told in English by the 1620s. 

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Baphomet 
name of the idol which the Templars were accused of worshipping, regarded as a corruption of Mahomet (see Muhammad), "a name which took strange shapes in the Middle Ages" [Century Dictionary]. Related: Baphometic.
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Mohammed 

former common English transliteration of Muhammad.

The worst of letting the learned gentry bully us out of our traditional Mahometan & Mahomet ... is this: no sooner have we tried to be good & learnt to say, or at least write, Mohammed than they are fired with zeal to get us a step or two further on the path of truth, which at present seems likely to end in Muhammad with a dot under the h .... [H.W. Fowler, "A Dictionary of Modern English Usage," 1926]
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Mahomet 

a popular form of the name Muhammad (the prophet of Islam) in Middle English, late 14c., via Old French. Other Middle English variants, dating back to c. 1200, include Makomete, macomete, machamete, machamote, mahimet, mahumet macumeth, makamed. In Middle English maumet was "a representation of a pagan deity, an idol" (c. 1200); "a false god" (mid-14c.), from Old French mahumet; hence also maumetrie "worship of pagan deities, idolatry." A curious misunderstanding of a prophet and faith notable for severe monotheism. Related: Mahometan.

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caliph (n.)
late 14c., "ruler of a Muslim country," from Old French caliphe (12c., also algalife), from Medieval Latin califa, from Arabic khalifa "successor" (from khalafa "succeed"). Title given to the successor of Muhammad as leader of the community and defender of the faith; originally Abu-Bakr, who succeeded Muhammad in the role of leader of the faithful after the prophet's death.
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sharif (n.)
1550s, shereef, from Arabic sharif "noble, glorious," from sharafa "to be exalted." A descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima.
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A.H. 
in Islamic calendrical reckoning, 1788, abbreviation of Medieval Latin Anno Hegirae, "Year of the Hegira," the flight of Muhammad from Mecca in 622 C.E., from which Muslims reckon time; from ablative of annus "year" (see annual (adj.)) + genitive of hegira.
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hegira (n.)
flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina (July 16, 622 C.E.), the event from which the Islamic calendar reckons, 1580s, from Medieval Latin hegira, from Arabic hijrah "departure," from hajara "to depart."
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umma (n.)
"the Islamic community," founded by Muhammad and bound to one another by religious ties and obligations, 1855, from Arabic 'umma "people, community, nation."
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Shafi'i (n.)
member of one of the four principal schools of Sunni Muslims, 1704, from Arabic, from ash-Shafi'i, cognomen of founder Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Idris (767-819). Related: Shafi'ite.
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