Etymology
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revenge (n.)

"retaliation for wrongs real or fancied, act of doing harm or injury in return for wrong or injury suffered," 1540s, from French revenge, a back-formation from revengier (see revenge (v.)). Hence "vindictive feeling, desire to be revenged."

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revenge (v.)

late 14c., revengen, "avenge oneself," from Old French revengier, revenger, variants of revenchier "take revenge, avenge" (13c., Modern French revancher), from re-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see re-), + vengier "take revenge," from Latin vindicare "to lay claim to, avenge, punish" (see vindication). Transitive sense of "take vengeance on account of" is from early 15c. Related: Revenged; revenging; revengement.

To avenge is "to get revenge" or "to take vengeance"; it suggests the administration of just punishment for a criminal or immoral act. Revenge seems to stress the idea of retaliation a bit more strongly and implies real hatred as its motivation. ["The Columbia Guide to Standard American English," 1993]
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Montezuma 

name borne by two rulers of Tenochtitlan in ancient Mesoamerica, from Spanish Moctezuma, from Nahuatl (Aztecan) Moteuczoma, said to mean "he who frowns like a lord" or "he who is angry in a noble manner." Montezuma's revenge, "severe intestinal infection" sometimes suffered by non-natives in Mexico, is by 1962, in reference to Montezuma II (1466-1520), Aztec ruler at the time of the Spanish arrival and conquest of Mexico.

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revanche (n.)

"revenge," especially in national policy, 1858, from French revanche "requital, revenge" (see revanchist).

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Mstislav 
Slavic masc. proper name, literally "vengeful fame," from Russian mstit' "to take revenge," from Proto-Slavic *misti "revenge," *mistiti "to take revenge," from PIE *mit-ti-, extended form of root *mei- (1) "to change, go, move;" for second element, see Slav.
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vengeful (adj.)
1580s, from obsolete venge (v.) "take revenge" + -ful. Related: Vengefully; vengefulness.
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revanchist (n.)

1926, "a German seeking to avenge Germany's defeat in World War I and recover lost territory," on model of French revanchiste, which had been used in reference to those in France who sought to reverse the results of the defeat of France by Prussia in 1871 (which was accomplished by World War I).

This is from revanche "revenge, requital," especially in reference to a national policy seeking return of lost territory, from French revanche "revenge," earlier revenche, back-formation from revenchier (see revenge (v.)). Used during the Cold War in Soviet propaganda in reference to West Germany. Related: Revanchism (1954).

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revengeful (adj.)

"vindictive, full of desire to inflict injury or pain for wrongs received," 1580s; see revenge (n.) + -ful. Related: Revengefully; revengefulness.

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vindication (n.)

late 15c., "act of avenging, revenge," from Old French vindicacion "vengeance, revenge" and directly from Latin vindicationem (nominative vindicatio) "act of claiming or avenging," noun of action from past participle stem of vindicare "lay claim to, assert; claim for freedom, set free; protect, defend; avenge" (related to vindicta "revenge"), probably from vim dicare "to show authority," from vim, accusative of vis "force" (see vim) + dicare "to proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Meaning "justification by proof, defense against censure" is attested from 1640s.

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avenge (v.)
"vindicate by inflicting pain or evil on the wrongdoer," late 14c., from Anglo-French avenger, Old French avengier, from a- "to" (see ad-) + vengier "take revenge" (Modern French venger), from Latin vindicare "to claim, avenge, punish" (see vindication). See revenge (v.) for distinction of use. Related: Avenged; avenging. As a noun to go with it, 16c. English tried avenge, avengeance, avengement, avenging.
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