resort town, capital of Monaco, Italian, literally "Charles's Mountain," founded 1866 and named for Charles III of Monaco (1818-1889). The car rally there dates to 1911. The Monte Carlo fallacy (by 1957) was named for the town's famous gambling casinos; it is the fallacy of thinking that the probability of a particular outcome rises with the successive number of opposite outcomes. Contrary to the Monte Carlo fallacy, if the roulette wheel stops on black 99 times in a row, the chances that the 100th spin will be red are still just under 50-50.
1824, the name of a favorite Spanish and Spanish-American card game played with a deck of 40 cards, from Spanish monte "mountain," from Latin montem (nominative mons) "mountain" (from PIE root *men- (2) "to project"). So called from the heap of cards left after dealing. Picked up by the Americans in Texas and in the Mexican War, it was a favorite in California during the gold rush years. The three-card confidence-game form (first attested 1877) is of Mexican origin.