Etymology
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merchant (n.)

"one engaged in the business of buying commercial commodities and selling them again for profit," early 13c., marchaunt (late 12c. as a surname), from Anglo-French marchaunt "merchant, shopkeeper" (Old French marcheant, Modern French marchand), from Vulgar Latin *mercatantem (nominative *mercatans) "a buyer," present participle of *mercatare, frequentative of Latin mercari "to trade, traffic, deal in" (see market (n.)). Meaning "fellow, chap" is from 1540s; with a specific qualifier, and suggesting someone who deals in it (such as speed merchant "one who enjoys fast driving," by 1914).

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merchant (adj.)

"relating to trade or commerce; pertaining to merchants," c. 1400, from merchant (n.) and from Old French marcheant (adj.).

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merchantman (n.)

"a ship employed in the transportation of goods," 1620s, from merchant + man.

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merchandise (n.)

mid-13c., marchaundise, "trading, commerce, action or business of buying and selling goods or commodities for profit;" mid-14c., "commodities of commerce; wares, movable objects, and articles for sale or trade," from Anglo-French marchaundise, Old French marcheandise "goods, merchandise; trade, business" (12c.), from marchaunt "merchant" (see merchant). The plural had become obsolete in English by late 19c.

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Mercator 

type of map projection, 1660s, invented by Flemish geographer Gerhard Kremer (1512-1594), who Latinized his surname, which means "dealer, tradesman," as Mercator (see merchant). He first used this type of map projection in 1568. Its great distortions in the northern and southern regions renders it unsuitable for land maps, but as on it a constant compass bearing always is represented by a straight line, it is useful for sea maps.

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argosy (n.)
1570s, "large merchant vessel carrying rich freight," from Italian (nave) Ragusea "(vessel) of Ragusa," maritime city on the Dalmatian coast of the Adriatic (modern Dubrovnik in Croatia). Their large merchant ships brought rich Eastern goods to 16c. England. The city name sometimes was Aragouse or Arragosa in 16c. English. Figurative use from 1620s.
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vintner (n.)
"wine merchant," c. 1400 (late 12c. as a surname), alteration of Anglo-French vineter, Old French vinetier "wine-merchant; grape-harvester," from Medieval Latin vinetarius "a wine dealer," from Latin vinetum "vineyard," from vinum "wine" (see vine).
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Shylock (n.)
"usurer, merciless creditor," 1786, from Jewish money-lender character in Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice" (c. 1596).
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retailer (n.)

mid-15c., retaillour, "a retail merchant or dealer, one who sells goods in small quantities," agent noun from retail (v.) or else from Old French retailleor.

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seller (n.)

"merchant, vendor," c. 1200, agent noun from sell (v.). Seller's market, in which demand predominates, is recorded by 1934.

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