"to reach the maximum level," by 1986, colloquial, from maximize or related words. Related: Maxed; maxing. As a noun, by 1811 in reference to a kind of gin said to be the best, apparently an abbreviation of French maxime.
in physics, in reference to the work of German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947); such as Planck's constant, attested in English from 1901.
phylum of articulated invertebrates, 1849, Modern Latin, literally "those with jointed feet," coined 1845 by German zoologist Karl Theodor Ernst von Siebold (1804-1885) from Greek arthron "a joint" (from PIE root *ar- "to fit together") + podos genitive of pous "foot" (from PIE root *ped- "foot"). They comprise the vast majority of animals, including insects, spiders, and crustaceans.
1610s, "sum, amount," from Latin quantum (plural quanta) "as much as, so much as; how much? how far? how great an extent?" neuter singular of correlative pronominal adjective quantus "as much" (see quantity).
The word was introduced in physics directly from Latin by Max Planck, 1900, on the notion of "minimum amount of a quantity which can exist;" reinforced by Einstein, 1905. Quantum theory is from 1912; quantum mechanics, 1922. The term quantum jump "abrupt transition from one stationary state to another" is recorded by 1954; quantum leap "sudden large advance" (1963), is often figurative.
1975, proprietary name (Sony), from Japanese beta-beta "all over" + max, from English maximum.
1886, "a devotee of the teachings of German political theorist Karl Marx" (1818-1883), from French marxiste. The adjective, "of or pertaining to the socialist doctrines and theories of Karl Marx," is attested from 1884. The alternative adjectival form Marxian (1887 in reference to Karl Marx) sometimes is used (1940, by Groucho, among others) to distinguish the U.S. vaudeville family from the German political theorist.