Etymology
Advertisement
martyrdom (n.)

"torture and execution for the sake of one's faith," Old English martyrdom; see martyr (n.) + -dom. As "a state of suffering for the maintaining of any obnoxious cause," late 14c.

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
tirade (n.)
"a long, vehement speech, a 'volley of words,' " 1801, from French tirade "a volley, a shot; a pull; a long speech or passage; a drawing out" (16c.), from tirer "draw out, endure, suffer," or the French noun is perhaps from or influenced by cognate Italian tirata "a volley," from past participle of tirare "to draw." The whole Romanic word group is of uncertain origin. Barnhart suggests it is a shortening of the source of Old French martirer "endure martyrdom" (see martyr).
Related entries & more 
anniversary (n.)
c. 1200, "year-day, annual return of a certain date in the year," originally especially of the day of a person's death or a saint's martyrdom, from Medieval Latin anniversarium, noun from Latin anniversarius (adj.) "returning annually," from annus (genitive anni) "year" (see annual (adj.)) + versus, past participle of vertere "to turn" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend").

The adjective came to be used as a noun in Church Latin via anniversaria dies in reference to saints' days. Anniversary as an adjective in English is from mid-15c. An Old English word for "anniversary" (n.) was mynddæg, literally "mind-day."
Related entries & more 
confess (v.)

late 14c., transitive and intransitive, "make avowal or admission of" (a fault, crime, sin, debt, etc.), from Old French confesser (transitive and intransitive), from Vulgar Latin *confessare, a frequentative form from Latin confess-, past participle stem of confiteri "to acknowledge," from assimilated form of com "together" (see con-) + fateri "to admit," akin to fari "speak," from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say."

Its original religious sense was in reference to one who avows his religion in spite of persecution or danger but does not suffer martyrdom (compare confessor). Old French confesser thus had also a figurative sense of "to harm, hurt, make suffer." Related: Confessed; confessing. An Old English word for it was andettan.

Related entries & more 
baptism (n.)
"initiatory sacrament of the Christian faith, consisting in immersion in or application of water by an authorized administrator," c. 1300, bapteme, from Old French batesme, bapteme "baptism" (11c., Modern French baptême), from Latin baptismus, from Greek baptismos, noun of action from baptizein (see baptize). The -s- was restored in late 14c.

The signification, qualifications, and methods of administration have been much debated. Figurative sense "any ceremonial ablution as a sign of purification, dedication, etc." is from late 14c. Old English used fulluht in this sense (John the Baptist was Iohannes se Fulluhtere).

Phrase baptism of fire "a soldier's first experience of battle" (1857) translates French baptême de feu; the phrase originally was ecclesiastical Greek baptisma pyros and meant "the grace of the Holy Spirit as imparted through baptism;" later it was used of martyrdom, especially by burning.
Related entries & more 
Advertisement
confessor (n.)

late Old English, "one who avows his religion," especially in the face of danger, but does not suffer martyrdom, from Latin confessor, agent noun from past-participle stem of confiteri "to acknowledge" (see confess). Meaning "one who hears confessions" is from mid-14c.; this properly would be Latin confessarius, but Latin confessor was being used in this sense from the 9th century. Meaning "one who admits to a crime" is from 1690s.

Edward the Confessor (c. 1003-1066, canonized 1161), the late Anglo-Saxon king, lived a pious life and died with the reputation of sanctity but does not seem to fit his title; perhaps he was so called to distinguish him from another Anglo-Saxon saint/king, Edward the Martyr (c. 962-979), who better fits his.

Related entries & more 
discipline (n.)
Origin and meaning of discipline

c. 1200, "penitential chastisement; punishment for the sake of correction," from Old French descepline "discipline, physical punishment; teaching; suffering; martyrdom" (11c., Modern French discipline) and directly from Latin disciplina "instruction given, teaching, learning, knowledge," also "object of instruction, knowledge, science, military discipline," from discipulus "pupil, student, follower" (see disciple (n.)).

The Latin word is glossed in Old English by þeodscipe. The meaning "treatment that corrects or punishes" is from the notion of "order necessary for instruction."

Meaning "branch of instruction or education" is first recorded late 14c. Meaning "system of rules and regulations" is from mid-14c. Meaning "military training" is from late 15c., via the notion of "training to follow orders and act in accordance with rules;" that of "orderly conduct as a result of training" is from c. 1500. Sense of "system by which the practice of a church is regulated, laws which bind the subjects of a church in their conduct" is from 1570s.

Related entries & more 
macabre (adj.)

early 15c., in Macabrees daunce, daunce of Machabree, a kind of morality show or allegorical representation of death and his victims, from Old French (danse) Macabré "(dance) of Death" (1376), which is of uncertain origin.

John Lydgate (c. 1370–c. 1451), the monk/poet who first translated it into English, seems to have regarded it as the name of the French author, and perhaps it was a French surname Macabré. Or perhaps it is from Medieval Latin (Chorea) Machabæorum, literally "dance of the Maccabees" (leaders of the Jewish revolt against Syro-Hellenes; see Maccabees). If so, the association with the dance of death (a favorite subject of literature and art in the Middle Ages) would be from vivid descriptions of the martyrdom of the Maccabees in the Apocryphal books.

The typical form which the allegory takes is that of a series of pictures, sculptured or painted, in which Death appears, either as a dancing skeleton or as a shrunken corpse wrapped in grave-clothes to persons representing every age and condition of life, and leads them all in a dance to the grave. [Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., 1911]

 The abstracted sense of "characterized by gruesomeness" is attested 1842 in French, by 1889 in English. Related: Macaberesque.

Related entries & more