Etymology
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marine (n.)

late 14c., "seacoast;" see marine (adj.). Meaning "collective shipping of a country" is from 1660s. Meaning "soldier who serves on a ship" is from 1670s, a separate borrowing from French marine, from the French adjective. Phrase tell that to the marines (1805) originally was the first half of a retort expressing disbelief in some statement made or story told:

"Upon my soul, sir," answered the lieutenant, "when I thought she scorned my passion, I wept like a child."
"Belay there!" cried the captain; "you may tell that to the marines, but I'll be d----d if the sailors will believe it." ["John Moore," "The Post-Captain; or, the Wooden Walls Well Manned," 1805]

The book, a rollicking sea romance/adventure novel, was popular in its day and the remark is a recurring punch line in it (repeated at least four times). It was written by naval veteran John Davis (1774-1854) but published under the pseudonym "John Moore." Walsh records that, among sailors, marines are "a proverbially gullible lot, capable of swallowing any yarn, in size varying from a yawl-boat to a full-rigged frigate."

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animal (adj.)

late 14c., "pertaining to the animal spirit of man," that is, "pertaining to the merely sentient (as distinguished from the intellectual, rational, or spiritual) qualities of a human being," from Latin animalis, from animale "living being" (see animal (n.)).

From 1540s as "pertaining to sensation;" by 1630s as "pertaining to or derived from beasts;" 1640s as "pertaining to the animal kingdom" (as opposed to vegetable or mineral); 1650s as "having life, living."

Animal rights is attested from 1879; animal liberation from 1973. Animal magnetism originally (1784) referred to mesmerism.

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marine (adj.)

mid-15c., "found in or pertaining to the sea," from Old French marin "of the sea, maritime," and directly from Latin marinus "of the sea," from mare "sea, the sea, seawater," from PIE root *mori- "body of water." The Old English word was sælic.

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animal (n.)

early 14c., "any sentient living creature" (including humans), from Latin animale "living being, being which breathes," noun use of neuter of animalis (adj.) "animate, living; of the air," from anima "breath, soul; a current of air" (from PIE root *ane- "to breathe;" for sense development, compare deer).

A rare word in English before c. 1600, and not in KJV (1611). Commonly only of non-human creatures. It drove out the older beast in common usage. Used derisively of brutish humans (in which the "animal," or non-rational, non-spiritual nature is ascendant) from 1580s.

Quid est homo? A dedlych best and resonable, animal racionale. ["Battlefield Grammar," c. 1450]
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horse-marine (n.)

1824, "one of an imaginary corps of mounted sailors," hence "a person out of his element and unfit for his place" [Century Dictionary], from horse (n.) + marine (n.). However by 1878 the term was being used in fact in reference to cavalrymen pressed into marine service or seamen mounted as an improvised shore defense.

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sea-serpent (n.)

1670s, "venomous sea-snake of the tropics," from sea + serpent. By 1774 as "enormous marine animal of serpent form," figuring in mariners' tales.

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sea-monster (n.)

"huge, hideous, or terrible marine animal," 1580s, from sea + monster. Sea serpent is attested from 1640s. In Middle English a sea-monster might be called sea-wolf; in Old English, sædraca "sea dragon," or sædeor "sea-animal."

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junk-shop (n.)

1800, "marine shop," from junk (n.1) in the sense "discarded articles from ships." By 1951 in the non-marine sense "junk-dealer."

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phytoplankton (n.)

"microscopic marine algae, the plant parts of the plankton community," 1897, from phyto- + plankton.

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