1580s, "to make a map of," from map (n.). Related: Mapped, mapping. To map (something) out in the figurative sense is from 1610s.
in sculpture, architecture, etc., "projection of figure or design from the flat surface on which it is formed," c. 1600, from French relief, from Italian rilievo, from rilevare "to raise," from Latin relevare "to raise, lighten" (see relieve). In physical geography, "the form of the surface of any part of the earth" (by 1842), especially in relief map.
Model Mapping.—The plan of representing countries in relief is gaining ground, particularly in Germany. [William Richard Hamilton, president's address to the Royal Geographical Society of London, May 23, 1842]
c. 1200, "astronomy, astrology, scientific or occult study of heavenly bodies," from Old French astrenomie "astronomy, astrology," from Latin astronomia, from Greek astronomia, abstract noun from astronomos, literally "star-regulating," from astron "star" (from PIE root *ster- (2) "star") + nomos "arranging, regulating; rule, law," from PIE root *nem- "assign, allot; take." Perhaps originally with reference to mapping the constellations or movements of planets.
Þer wes moni god clarc to lokien in þan leofte, to lokien i þan steorren nehʒe and feorren. þe craft is ihate Astronomie. [Layamon, "The Brut," c. 1200]
In English, astronomy is earlier than astrology and originally included the senses now distributed over both words; the gradual differentiation was complete by late 17c. and astronomy came to mean exclusively "the scientific study of the heavenly bodies." See astrology.