Etymology
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depressive (adj.)

"able or tending to depress," 1610s, from Latin depress-, past-participle stem of deprimere (see depress) + -ive. In psychology, from 1905. Related: Depressiveness.

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illness (n.)

"disease, sickness, ailment, malady," 1680s, from ill (adj.) + -ness. Earlier it meant "bad moral quality" (c. 1500).

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manic (adj.)

"pertaining to or affected with mania," 1902, from mania + -ic. The clinical term manic depressive also is from 1902; manic depression is first attested 1903. An older name for it was circular insanity (1857), from French folie circulaire (1854).

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bipolar (adj.)

"having two poles;" see bi- "two" + polar. It is attested from 1810 in the figurative sense of "of double aspect;" by 1859 with reference to anatomy ("having two processes from opposite poles," of nerve cells). Psychiatric use in reference to what had been called manic-depressive psychosis is said to have begun 1957 with German psychiatrist Karl Leonhard. The term became popular early 1990s. Bipolar disorder was in DSM III (1980).

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sick (n.)

"those who are sick, persons suffering from illness," Old English seoce, from the source of  sick (adj.). Colloquial sense of "vomited matter" is by 1959.

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hypomania (n.)

"manic elation accompanied by quickened perception," 1843 (as a clinical word from 1882, from German hypomanie, 1881); see hypo- "under, beneath" + mania. Related: Hypomaniac; hypomanic.

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sickness (n.)

"state of being sick or suffering from a disease," Middle English siknesse, from Old English seocnes "sickness, disease; a particular malady;" see sick (adj.) and -ness. It formerly was synonymous with illness; in late 19c. sickness began to be restricted to nausea and other disturbances of the stomach, leaving illness as "a rather more elegant and less definite term" [Century Dictionary].

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self-examination (n.)

1640s, "scrutiny into one's own state, conduct, or motives," from self- + examination. By 1955 as "examination of one's own body for signs of illness."

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bed-rest (n.)

by 1836 as "device for sitting up in bed;" by 1896 as "a resting in bed for recovery from injury or illness;" from bed (n.) + rest (n.).

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frisson (n.)

"emotional thrill," 1777 (Walpole), from French frisson "fever, illness; shiver, thrill" (12c.), from Latin frigere "to be cold" (see frigid). Scant record of the word in English between Walpole's use and 1888.

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