1610s, "unity, arithmetical unit," 1610s, from Late Latin monas (genitive monadis), from Greek monas "unit," from monos "alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated"). In Leibnitz's philosophy, "an ultimate unit of being, a unit of the universal substance" (1748); he apparently adopted the word from Giordano Bruno's 16c. metaphysics, where it referred to a hypothetical primary indivisible substance at once material and spiritual. Related: Monadic; monadism.
"place of residence occupied in common by persons seeking religious seclusion from the world," c. 1400, monasterie, from Old French monastere "monastery" (14c.) and directly from Late Latin monasterium, from Ecclesiastical Greek monastērion "a monastery," from monazein "to live alone," from monos "alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated"). With suffix -terion "place for (doing something)." Originally applied to houses of any religious order, male or female, but commonly especially one used by monks. Related: Monasterial (mid-15c.).
1610s, from French monarchique, from Latinized form of Greek monarkhikos, from monarkhēs (see monarch). Related: Monarchical (1570s).
"the principle of monarchical government; preference for monarchy," by 1791, from French monarchisme, from monarchie (see monarchy).
mid-14c., monarchie, "a kingdom, territory ruled by a monarch;" late 14c., "rule by one person with supreme power;" from Old French monarchie "sovereignty, absolute power" (13c.), from Late Latin monarchia, from Greek monarkhia "absolute rule," literally "ruling of one," from monos "alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + arkhein "to rule" (see archon). Meaning "form of government in which supreme power is in the hands of a monarch" is from early 15c.
mid-15c., monark, "supreme governor for life, a sole or autocratic ruler of a state," from Old French monarche (14c., Modern French monarque) and directly from Late Latin monarcha, from Greek monarkhēs "one who rules alone" (see monarchy). "In modern times generally a hereditary sovereign with more or less limited powers" [Century Dictionary, 1897].
As a type of large orange and black North American butterfly by 1885; on one theory it was so called in honor of King William III of England, who also was Prince of Orange, in reference to the butterfly's color. An older name is milkweed-butterfly (1871). Other old names for it were danais and archippus.