Etymology
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London 

chief city and capital of England, Latin Londinium (Tacitus, c. 115), according to the "Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names," "unexplained." It is often said to be "place belonging to a man named *Londinos," a supposed Celtic personal name meaning "the wild one," "but this etymology is rejected in an emphatic footnote in Jackson 1953 (p. 308), and we have as yet nothing to put in its place" [Margaret Gelling, "Signposts to the Past: Place-Names and the History of England," Chichester, 1978]. Its mythical history is told in Layamon's "Brut" (c. 1200).

In late Old English often with -burg, -wic, or -ceaster. As an adjective, Old English had Lundenisc, but this seems to have fallen from use, and modern Londonish (1838) probably is a re-coinage. Also Londony (1884); Londonesque (1852); Londinensian (George Meredith); Londonian (1824, marked "rare" in OED).

London Bridge the children's singing game is attested from 1827. London broil "large flank steak broiled then cut in thin slices" attested 1930s, American English; London fog first attested 1785.

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Londoner (n.)
"resident or native of London," mid-15c., from London + -er (1). Earlier (late 14c.) was Londenoys, from Anglo-French Londenois.
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tosh (n.)
"valuables collected from drains," 1852, London slang, of unknown origin.
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Vic 
1858, colloquial abbreviation of Royal Victoria Theater in London.
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Scotland Yard (n.)
used for "London Metropolitan Police," 1864, from the name of short street off Whitehall, London; where from 1829 to 1890 stood the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Force, hence, the force itself, especially the detective branch. After 1890, located in "New Scotland Yard."
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Lord's 
cricket grounds in London, named for founder Thomas Lord (1757-1832).
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Lloyd 

male proper name, from Welsh Llwyd, literally "gray," from PIE root *pel- (1) "pale." Lloyd's, meaning the London-based association of marine underwriters, is first recorded as such 1805, from Lloyd's Coffee House, London, opened in 1688 by Edward Lloyd, who supplied shipping information to his patrons; merchants and underwriters met there to do business.

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Sloane Square 
neighborhood near Chelsea in London, named for Sir Hans Sloane who purchased the manor of Chelsea in 1712 and whose collections contributed to the British Museum. Previous to development the place was known as Great Bloody Field ["Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names"]. Sloane Ranger attested from 1975, with a play on Lone Ranger.
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porter (n.3)

type of dark-brown malty beer, 1734, short for porter's ale (1721), porter-beer, etc., from porter (n.1), said to be so called because the beer was made for or preferred by porters and other laborers, being cheap and strong, and it survived into 20c. largely in Ireland. However, as OED points out, "There is no direct contemporary evidence as to the origin of the name," to which Century Dictionary (1897) adds, "There is no evidence that London porters, as distinguished from London cabmen or London artisans, favored this sort of beer."

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Piccadilly 

street and circus in London, named for Pickadilly Hall, a house that once stood there; the name is of uncertain origin.

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