early 15c., "based on reason, according to the principles of logic," from logic + -al (1). Meaning "pertaining to logic" is c. 1500. Attested from 1860 as "following as a reasonable consequence." Related: Logically. Logical positivism, in reference to the ideas of the Vienna Circle of philosophers, is from 1931.
early 14c., "statements and reasoning in support of a proposition or causing belief in a doubtful matter," from Old French arguement "reasoning, opinion; accusation, charge" (13c.), from Latin argumentum "a logical argument; evidence, ground, support, proof," from arguere "make clear, make known, prove" (see argue). The sense in English passed through "subject of contention" (1590s) to "a quarrel" (by 1911), a sense formerly attached to argumentation.
early 15c., "attainment;" 1530s, "proceeding in argument from one proposition to another in logical sequence," from Latin consecutionem (nominative consecutio), noun of action from past-participle stem of consequi "to follow after," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + sequi "to follow" (from PIE root *sekw- (1) "to follow"). Meaning "any succession or sequence" is from 1650s.
1540s, refutacion, "act of disproving; overthrowing of an argument" (by countervailing argument or proof), from French réfutation (16c.) and directly from Latin refutationem (nominative refutatio) "disproof of a claim or argument," noun of action from past-participle stem of refutare "drive back; rebut, disprove" (see refute).
mid-14c., logike, "branch of philosophy that treats of forms of thinking; the science of distinction of true from false reasoning," from Old French logique (13c.), from Latin (ars) logica "logic," from Greek (he) logike (techne) "(the) reasoning (art)," from fem. of logikos "pertaining to speaking or reasoning" (also "of or pertaining to speech"), from logos "reason, idea, word" (see Logos). Formerly also logick. Sometimes formerly plural, as in ethics, but this is not usual. Meaning "logical argumentation" is from c. 1600. Contemptuous logic-chopper "sophist, person who uses subtle distinctions in argument" is from 1846.
c. 1600, "dispute (something), oppose by argument" (a sense now obsolete); 1610s, "to make the subject of verbal contention, debate, discuss; contend against (someone) in argument," probably a back-formation from controversy. Related: Controverted; controverting; controvertible.