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late (adj.)

Old English læt "occurring after the customary or expected time," originally "slow, sluggish, slack, lax, negligent," from Proto-Germanic *lata- (source also of Old Norse latr "sluggish, lazy," Middle Dutch, Old Saxon lat, Dutch laat, German laß "idle, weary," Gothic lats "weary, sluggish, lazy," latjan "to hinder"), from PIE *led- "slow, weary," from root *‌‌lē- "to let go, slacken."

From mid-13c. as "occurring in the latter part of a period of time." From c. 1400 as "being or occurring in the near, or not too distant, past; recent" (of late). From this comes the early 15c. sense "recently dead, not many years dead" (as in the late Mrs. Smith). Of menstruation, attested colloquially from 1962. Expression better late than never is attested from late 15c. As an adverb, from Old English late "slowly."

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latesome (adj.)
Old English lætsum "backward, slow, sluggish;" see late + -some (1).
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lateness (n.)
Old English lætness "slowness," from late (adj.) + -ness. From late 14c. as "a being advanced in time;" from 1881 as "a being behind the proper time."
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lately (adv.)
Old English lætlice "slowly, sluggishly;" see late (adj.) + -ly (2). Meaning "within recent times, not long ago" is from late 15c., probably a new formation.
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last (adv.)
c. 1200, "most recently;" early 13c., "finally, after all others" (contrasted to first), contraction of Old English lætest (adv.), superlative of late (see late).
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latter (adv.)
Old English lator, "more slowly," comparative of late. From c. 1200 as "at a later time." Old English also had lætemest (adv.) "lastly, finally."
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later (adj., adv.)
"afterward," 16c., comparative of late. A modern formation; the Old English comparative lator developed into latter. As a salutation, "farewell," from 1954, U.S. colloquial, short for adverbial use in (I'll) see you later.
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belated (adj.)
1610s, "overtaken by night" from staying too late or being delayed, past-participle adjective from belate "to make late, detain," from be- + late. Sense of "coming past due, behind date" is from 1660s. Related: Belatedly; belatedness.
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latest (adj.)
c. 1200, "last, final," superlative of late. From 1590s as "most recent." As a noun, 1520s, "the last in order." Colloquial the latest "the news" attested from 1886. At the latest "at the most distant date" is from 1884.
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lassitude (n.)

early 15c., from Latin lassitudinem (nominative lassitudo) "faintness, weariness," from lassus "faint, tired, weary," from PIE *led-to-, suffixed form of *led- "slow, weary" (source also of Old English læt "sluggish, slow;" see late (adj.)), from PIE root *‌‌lē- "to let go, slacken."

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