Etymology
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kidney (n.)

early 14c., kidenere, a word of unknown origin, perhaps a compound of Old English cwið "womb" (see chitterlings) + ey "egg" (see egg (n.)) in reference to the shape of the organ. Figurative sense of "temperament" is from 1550s. Kidney-bean is from 1540s, so called for its shape.

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stone (n.)

Old English stan, used of common rocks, precious gems, concretions in the body, memorial stones, from Proto-Germanic *stainaz (source also of Old Norse steinn, Danish steen, Old Saxon sten, Old Frisian sten, Dutch steen, Old High German stein, German Stein, Gothic stains), from PIE *stoi-no-, suffixed form of root *stai- "stone," also "to thicken, stiffen" (source also of Sanskrit styayate "curdles, becomes hard;" Avestan stay- "heap;" Greek stear "fat, tallow," stia, stion "pebble;" Old Church Slavonic stena, Russian stiena "wall").

Sense of "testicle" is from late Old English. The British measure of weight (usually equal to 14 pounds) is from late 14c., originally a specific stone. Stone-fruit, one with a pit, is from 1520s. Stone's throw for "a short distance" is attested from 1580s. Stone Age is from 1864. To kill two birds with one stone is first attested 1650s. To leave no stone unturned is from 1540s.

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stone (v.)

c. 1200, "to pelt with stones," from stone (n.). From c. 1600 as "to fit with stones;" 1630s as "to free from stones" (of fruit, etc.). Related: Stoned; stoning.

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stone (adj.)

"made of stone," Old English (which also had stænan "stonen"); see stone (n.). As an intensifying adjective recorded from 1935, first recorded in African-American vernacular, probably from earlier use in phrases like stone blind (late 14c., literally "blind as a stone"), stone deaf, stone-cold (1590s), etc. Stone cold sober dates from 1937.

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Rosetta Stone (n.)

discovered 1798 at Rosetta, Egypt; now in British Museum. Dating to 2c. B.C.E., its trilingual inscription helped Jean-François Champollion decipher Egyptian demotic and hieroglyphics in 1822, which opened the way to the study of all early Egyptian records. Hence, figurative use of the term to mean "something which provides the key to previously unattainable understanding" (1902). The place name is a Europeanization of Rashid, a name given because it was founded c.800 C.E. by Caliph Harun ar-Rashid.

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snake-stone (n.)

also snakestone, "fossil ammonite," 1660s, from snake (n.) + stone (n.). So-called from the old popular notion that they were snakes petrified while coiled.

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nephrolithiasis (n.)

"the formation of kidney stones," 1837, probably from German, from nephro- "kidney" + lithos "stone" (see litho-) + -iasis "pathological or morbid condition."

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nephro- 

before vowels nephr-, word-forming element meaning "kidney, kidneys," from Greek nephros "a kidney" (plural nephroi), from PIE *negwhro- "kidney" (source also of Latin nefrones, Old Norse nyra, Dutch nier, German Niere "kidney").

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nephrology (n.)

"scientific study of the kidney," 1839, from nephro- "kidney" + -logy. Related: Nephrologist.

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nephrectomy (n.)

"excision of a kidney," 1880, from nephro- "kidney" + -ectomy "a cutting out."

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