Etymology
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moonwalk (n.)

1966, "a walking on the moon," from moon (n.) + walk (n.). As a dance move in which the dancer  moves backward while appearing to walk forward it was popularized 1983 by Michael Jackson. 

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stonewall (n.)

also stone wall, Old English stanwalle; see stone (n.) + wall (n.). As nickname of Confederate General Thomas J. Jackson (1824-1863), bestowed 1861 on the occasion of the First Battle of Bull Run, supposedly by Gen. Bernard Bee, urging his brigade to rally around Jackson, who was "standing like a stone wall." Bee was killed in the battle; the account of the nickname appeared in Southern newspapers within four days of the battle.

On the face of it this account has no character of authenticity, and the words ascribed to Bee smack less of the battlefield than of the editorial sanctum. ... It seems inherently probable that something was said by somebody, during or immediately after the battle, that likened Jackson or his men or both to a stone wall. [R.M. Johnston, "Bull Run: Its Strategy and Tactics," Boston, 1913]
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kludge 
a fanciful, humorous coinage by U.S. author Jackson W. Granholm (1921-2007), "ill-assorted collection of poorly-matching parts, forming a distressing whole" (Granholm's definition), 1962, also as a verb. It persisted in the jargon of computer programmers for quick-and-dirty fixes in code. Related: Kludged; kludgy.
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Jacksonian 
1824, of or in the character of U.S. politician Andrew Jackson (1767-1845). The surname is recorded from early 14c., literally "Jack's son, son of a man named Jack." Jacksonville, Florida, was renamed for him in 1822 from earlier Cowford, said to be an English translation of a native name wacca pilatka [Room].
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hickory (n.)
type of North American tree valued for its edible nuts and tough, flexible wood, 1670s, American English, from Algonquian (perhaps Powhatan), shortening of pockerchicory, pocohicora or a similar word, which is sometimes said to be the name for this species of walnut, but Bright calls it "a milky drink made from hickory nuts." Old Hickory as the nickname of U.S. politician Andrew Jackson is recorded from 1815.
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republican (n.)

"one who favors a republican form of government or republican principles" (or, as Johnson puts it, "One who thinks a commonwealth without monarchy the best government"), 1690s; see republican (adj.).

With capital R-, in reference to a member of a specific U.S. political party (the Anti-Federalists) from 1782, though this was not the ancestor of the modern U.S. Republican Party, which dates from 1854. In between, National Republicans was a name of the party that opposed Jackson and rallied behind John Quincy Adams in late 1820s.

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spoil (n.)

"booty, goods captured in time of war," mid-14c., spoils (collective singular), from spoil (v.) or else from Old French espoille "booty, spoil," from the verb in French, and in part from Latin spolium. Also from the Latin noun are Spanish espolio, Italian spoglio.

Transferred sense of "that which has been acquired by special effort" is from 1750. Spoils has stood cynically for "public offices, etc." since at least 1770. Spoils system in U.S. politics attested by 1839, commonly associated with the administration of President Andrew Jackson, on the notion of "to the victor belongs the spoils."

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coat-tail (n.)

c. 1600, "flaps formed by the lower back of a coat," from coat (n.) + tail (n.). In 17c., to do something on one's own coattail meant "at one's own expense." Meaning "power of one person," especially in politics, is at least from 1848 (in a Congressional speech by Abraham Lincoln); expression riding (someone's) coattails into political office is from 1949.

But the gentleman from Georgia further says we [Whigs] have deserted all our principles, and taken shelter under General Taylor's military coat-tail, and he seems to think this is exceedingly degrading. Well, as his faith is, so be it unto him. But can he remember no other military coat-tail under which a certain other party have been sheltering for near a quarter of a century? Has he no acquaintance with the ample military coat-tail of General Jackson? Does he not know that his own party have run the five last presidential races under that coat-tail? And that they are now running the sixth under the same cover? Yes, sir, that coat-tail was used not only for General Jackson himself, but has been clung to, with the grip of death, by every Democratic candidate since. [Lincoln, speech in Congress, July 27, 1848]
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hep (1)

"aware, up-to-date," first recorded 1908 in "Saturday Evening Post," but said to be underworld slang, of unknown origin. Variously said to have been the name of "a fabulous detective who operated in Cincinnati" [Louis E. Jackson and C.R. Hellyer, "A Vocabulary of Criminal Slang," 1914] or a saloonkeeper in Chicago who "never quite understood what was going on ... (but) thought he did" [American Speech, XVI, 154/1]. Taken up by jazz musicians by 1915. With the rise of hip (adj.) by the 1950s, the use of hep ironically became a clue that the speaker was unaware and not up-to-date.

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sesquicentennial (adj.)

"pertaining to a century and a half," 1875, from sesqui- + centennial (adj.). First in a notice of a "Sesqui-Centennial gathering" of descendants of Isaac and Ann Jackson, who settled in London Grove, Chester County, Pa., in 1725. As a noun, from 1880, first in reference to Baltimore's, probably short for sesquicentennial celebration, etc. 

Resolution to close the City Hall offices during the Sesqui-Centennial after 12 M on the 12th 13th 11th 15th and 16th of October [Journal of Proceedings of the First Branch City Council of Baltimore, Tuesday, Oct. 5, 1880]

The alternative noun sesquicentenary or sesqui-centenary is attested from 1896 (in reference to Princeton's).

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