Etymology
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Iran 

country name, from Persian Iran, from Middle Persian Ērān "(land) of the Iranians," genitive plural of ēr- "an Iranian," from Old Iranian *arya- (Old Persian ariya-, Avestan airya-) "Iranian", from Indo-Iranian *arya- or *ārya-, a self-designation, perhaps meaning "compatriot" (see Aryan).

In English it began to be used 1760s, by orientalists and linguists (Alexander Dow, William Jones), in historical contexts, and usually with a footnote identifying it with modern Persia; as recently as 1903 "Century Dictionary" defined it as "the ancient name of the region lying between Kurdistan and India." In 1935 the government of Reza Shah Pahlavi requested governments with which it had diplomatic relations to call his country Iran, after the indigenous name, rather than the Greek-derived Persia.

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republic (n.)

"state in which supreme or executive power rests in the people via representatives chosen by citizens entitled to vote," c. 1600, from French république (15c.), from Latin respublica (ablative republica) "the common weal, a commonwealth, state, republic," literally res publica "public interest, the state," from res "affair, matter, thing" (see re) + publica, fem. of publicus "public" (see public (adj.)).

Applied to particular states so constituted by 1630s. The notion of "community in which there is a certain equality of members" is behind such expressions as republic of letters "collective body of those engaged in literary pursuits," attested from 1702.

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Islamic (adj.)

"pertaining to Islam," 1791, from Islam + -ic.

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banana republic (n.)

"small Central American state with an economy dependent on banana production," 1901, American English.

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pan-Islamic (adj.)

also pan-Islamic, "of or pertaining to all Muslims or Islamic lands," 1881; see pan- + Islamic. Related: Panislamism "aspiration of a union of Islamic countries."

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masjid (n.)

Islamic place of worship; see mosque.

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chador (n.)

"cloth worn as a shawl by women in Iran," 1884, from Persian chadar "tent, mantle, scarf, veil, sheet, table-cloth."

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haram (adj.)

in Islamic terminology, "forbidden;" see harem.

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salat (n.)

Islamic ritual prayer, from Arabic salah "prayer."

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Iranian (adj.)

1788, "of or pertaining to (ancient) Persia," from Iran + -ian. From 1839 in reference to the language. As a noun, "an inhabitant of Persia" (1792), later "the language of Persia" (1850). Iranic (adj.) is from 1847.

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