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catholic (adj.)

mid-14c., "of the doctrines of the ancient Church" (before the East/West schism), literally "universally accepted," from French catholique, from Church Latin catholicus "universal, general," from Greek katholikos, from phrase kath' holou "on the whole, in general," from kata "about" + genitive of holos "whole" (from PIE root *sol- "whole, well-kept").

Medieval Latin catholicus was practically synonymous with Christian and meant "constituting or conforming to the church, its faith and organization" (as opposed to local sects or heresies). With capital C-, applied by Protestants to the Church in Rome c. 1554, after the Reformation began. General sense of "embracing all, universal" in English is from 1550s. Meaning "not narrow-minded or bigoted" is from 1580s. The Latin word was rendered in Old English as eallgeleaflic.

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Catholic (n.)
"member of the Roman Catholic church," 1560s, from Catholic (adj.).
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acatholic (adj.)
"non-Catholic," 1809, from a- (3) + Catholic.
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Catholicism (n.)
"faith and practice of the Catholic church," 1610s, from Catholic + -ism.
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catholicity (n.)

1790, "Catholicism, faith or doctrines of the Catholic church," from Catholic + -ity. Meaning "quality of being inclusive or comprehensive" is by 1812.

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despotic (adj.)

"pertaining to or of the nature of a despot or despotism," 1640s, from French despotique (14c.), from Greek despotikos, from despotēs "absolute ruler" (see despot). By 1734, "unlimited, arbitrary, tyrannical." In 18c. also despotick. Related: Despotical; despotically.

Despotic monarchs sincerely anxious to improve mankind are naturally led to endeavour, by acts of legislation, to force society into the paths which they believe to be good, and such men, acting under such motives, have sometimes been the scourges of mankind. Philip II. and Isabella the Catholic inflicted more suffering in obedience to their consciences than Nero or Domitian in obedience to their lusts. [Lecky, "History of European Morals," 1869]
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Bella 
fem. proper name, from Italian bella "fair," from Latin bella, fem. of bellus "beautiful, fair" (see belle). In some cases short for Isabella (see Isabel).
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Isabel 
fem. proper name, a form of Elizabeth that seems to have developed in Provence. A popular English name in the Middle Ages; pet forms included Ibb, Libbe, Nibb, Tibb, Bibby, and Ellice. The Spanish form was Isabella, which is attested as a color name ("greyish-yellow") in English from c. 1600; the Isabella who gave her name to it has not been identified, and the usual stories are too late for the date. Related: Isabelline (adj.).
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popish (adj.)

"of or pertaining to the Pope or the Roman Catholic Church," 1520s, a hostile coinage from Pope + -ish.

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Romish (adj.)

"Roman-Catholic," 1530s, "commonly used in a slightly invidious sense" [Century Dictionary], from Rome + -ish.

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