Etymology
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independent (adj.)
1610s, "not dependent on something else," from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + dependent. French independant is attested from c. 1600; Italian independente from 1590s. In English originally of churches, nations; in reference to persons from 1660s. Meaning "able to live well without labor" is from 1732. Meaning "unbiased, set up so as to be unaffected by outside influence" is from 1790. Related: Independently.

As a noun, from 1640s as "member of an independent congregational church, English Congregationalist." It is attested from 1670s as "one who acts according to his own will" and 1808 in the specific sense "person not acting as part of a political party."
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indie (n.)
"independent record company," 1945, shortening of independent. Among the earliest mentioned were Continental, Majestic, and Signature. Used of film production companies since 1920s, of theaters from 1942; extended by 1984 to a type of pop music issued by such labels.
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independence (n.)
1630s, "fact of not depending on others or another, self-support and self-government;" see independent + -ence. Earlier in same sense was independency (1610s). U.S. Independence Day (July 4, commemorating events of 1776) is recorded under that name by 1791.

An Old English word for it was selfdom, with self + dom "law," but in form this is closer to privilege (n.). The two concepts are not always distinguishable.
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city-state (n.)

"city which is an independent sovereign state," 1877, from city + state (n.).

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dualism (n.)

1755 as a term in philosophy, "a way of thinking which explains phenomena by the assumption of two independent and absolute elements," from French dualisme (1754); see dual + -ism. Theological sense of "doctrine of two independent divine beings or eternal principles" is by 1847. General sense of "division into two" is by 1831.

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Leibnitz 
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (also Leibniz), 1646-1716, German philosopher and mathematician, independent inventor (Newton was the other) of differential and integral calculus.
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ism (n.)
"distinctive doctrine, theory, or practice," 1670s, the suffix -ism used as an independent word, chiefly disparagingly. Related: Ismatical. By the same path, ist is from 1811.
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Republicrat (n.)
in U.S. political jargon, usually meaning "moderate; independent," 1881, from elements of the names of the two dominant parties; see republican (n.) and democrat (n.).
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Peru 

ancient realm in northwestern South America, later a Spanish viceroyalty, since 1821 an independent republic, from Spanish Peru, said to be from Quechua (Inca) pelu "river." Related: Peruvian.

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delimiter (n.)

1960, in computing, "sequence of one or more characters used to specify the beginning or end of separate, independent regions in text or other data streams," agent noun from delimit.

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