Etymology
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incapacity (n.)
1610s, "lack of ability, powerlessness," from French incapacité (16c.), from Medieval Latin incapacitatem (nominative incapacitas), from Late Latin incapax (genitive incapacis) "incapable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Latin capax "capable," literally "able to hold much," from capere "to take," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp." As a legal term (1640s), "lack of qualification," referring to inability to take, receive, or deal with in some way.
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incapacitate (v.)
1650s in a legal sense; 1660s in general use, "deprive of natural power," from incapacity + -ate. Related: Incapacitated; incapacitating.
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*kap- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to grasp."

It forms all or part of: accept; anticipate; anticipation; behave; behoof; behoove; cable; cacciatore; caitiff; capable; capacious; capacity; capias; capiche; capstan; caption; captious; captivate; captive; captor; capture; case (n.2) "receptacle;" catch; catchpoll; cater; chase (n.1) "a hunt;" chase (v.) "to run after, hunt;" chasse; chasseur; conceive; cop (v.) "to seize, catch;" copper (n.2) "policeman;" deceive; emancipate; except; forceps; gaffe; haft; have; hawk (n.); heave; heavy; heft; incapacity; inception; incipient; intercept; intussusception; manciple; municipal; occupy; participation; perceive; precept; prince; purchase; receive; recipe; recover; recuperate; sashay; susceptible.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit kapati "two handfuls;" Greek kaptein "to swallow, gulp down," kope "oar, handle;" Latin capax "able to hold much, broad," capistrum "halter," capere "to grasp, lay hold; be large enough for; comprehend;" Lettish kampiu "seize;" Old Irish cacht "servant-girl," literally "captive;" Welsh caeth "captive, slave;" Gothic haban "have, hold;" Old English hæft "handle," habban "to have, hold."

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deafness (n.)

"incapacity of distinguishing or perceiving sounds," late 14c., defnesse, from deaf + -ness.

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sterility (n.)

early 15c., sterilite, "infertility, barrenness, incapacity to produce children," from Old French sterilite, from Latin sterilitatem (nominative sterilitas) "unfruitfulness, barrenness," from sterilis (see sterile).

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barrenness (n.)

late 14c., "incapacity for child-bearing" (of women); "unproductivity, unfruitfulness" (of land); earlier in a figurative sense ("spiritual emptiness," mid-14c.); from barren + -ness.

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disability (n.)

1570s, "want of power, strength, or ability," from dis- + ability. Meaning "incapacity in the eyes of the law" is from 1640s. Related: Disabilities.

Disability implies deprivation or loss of power; inability indicates rather inherent want of power. [Century Dictionary]
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analgesia (n.)
"absence of pain, incapacity of feeling pain in a part, though tactile sense is preserved," 1706, medical Latin, from Greek analgesia "want of feeling, insensibility," from analgetos "without pain, insensible to pain" (also "unfeeling, ruthless"), from an- "not" (see an- (1)) + algein "to feel pain" (see -algia). An alternative form is analgia.
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intolerance (n.)
1765, "unwillingness to endure a differing opinion or belief," from Latin intolerantia "impatience; unendurableness, insufferableness; insolence," from intolerantem "impatient, intolerant" (see intolerant). There is an isolated use from c. 1500, with an apparent sense of "unwillingness." Especially of religious matters through mid-19c. Now-obsolete intolerancy was used in same sense from 1620s; intoleration from 1610s. Meaning "incapacity to bear or endure" is by 1844.
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detriment (n.)

early 15c., "incapacity;" mid-15c., "any harm or injury," from Old French détriment or directly from Latin detrimentum "a rubbing off; a loss, damage, defeat," from past-participle stem of detere "to wear away," figuratively "to weaken, impair," from de "away" (see de-) + terere "to rub, wear" (from PIE root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn"). Meaning "that which causes harm or injury" is from c. 1500.

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