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imperator (n.)
"absolute ruler," 1580s, from Latin imperator "commander-in-chief, leader, master," agent noun from stem of imperare "to command" (see imperative (adj.)). In the Roman republic, a holder of military command during active service, also a title bestowed on victorious generals; in the Roman Empire, the emperor as commander-in-chief of the armies. Related: Imperatorial.
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Augustus 
masc. proper name, from Latin augustus "venerable" (see august (adj.)). The name originally was a cognomen applied to Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus as emperor, with a sense something like "his majesty."
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Augusta 
fem. proper name, Latin fem. of Augustus (q.v.).
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Sebastian 
masc. proper name, from Latin Sebastianus, from Greek Sebastianos, "man of Sebastia," a city in Pontus that was named for Augustus Caesar, first Roman emperor, from Greek sebastos "venerable," a translation of Latin augustus, the epithet of Caesar.
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emperor (n.)

early 13c., from Old French empereor "emperor, leader, ruler" (11c.; accusative; nominative emperere; Modern French empereur), from Latin imperatorem (nominative imperator) "commander, emperor," from past participle stem of imperare "to command" (see empire).

Originally a title conferred by vote of the Roman army on a successful general, later by the Senate on Julius and Augustus Caesar and adopted by their successors except Tiberius and Claudius. In the Middle Ages, applied to rulers of China, Japan, etc.; non-historical European application in English had been only to the Holy Roman Emperors (who in German documents are called kaiser), from late 13c., until in 1804 Napoleon took the title "Emperor of the French."

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Trier 
city in Germany (French Trèves), founded c. 15 B.C.E. by Augustus, named for the indigenous Gaulish people, the Treveri.
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August 
eighth month, late 11c., from Latin Augustus (mensis), sixth month of the later Roman calendar, renamed from Sextilis (literally "sixth") in 8 B.C.E. to honor emperor Augustus Caesar, literally "Venerable Caesar" (see august (adj.), and compare Augustus). One of two months given new names to honor Roman leaders (July being the other), the Romans also gave new imperial names to September (Germanicus) and October (Domitian) but these did not stick.

In England, the name replaced native Weodmonað "weed month." Traditionally the first month of autumn in Great Britain, the last of summer in the U.S.
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Augustan (adj.)
1640s, from Latin Augustanus, "pertaining to Augustus (Caesar)," whose reign (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.) was connected with "the palmy period of Latin literature" [OED]; hence, "period of purity and refinement in any national literature" (1712); in French, the reign of Louis XIV; in English, that of Queen Anne.
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Augustine (adj.)
c. 1400 in reference to members of the religious order named for St. Augustine the Great (354-430), bishop of Hippo. The name is Latin Augustinus, from augustus "venerable, majestic, magnificent, noble" (see august (adj.)) + name-forming element inus (see -ine (1)). Related: Augustinian.
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august (adj.)
"inspiring reverence and admiration, solemnly grand," 1660s, from Latin augustus "venerable, majestic, magnificent, noble," perhaps originally "consecrated by the augurs, with favorable auguries" (see augur (n.)); or else [de Vaan] "that which is increased" (see augment).
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