Etymology
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hydrogen (n.)
colorless, gaseous element, 1791, hydrogene, from French hydrogène (Modern Latin hydrogenium), coined 1787 by G. de Morveau, Lavoisier, Berthollet, and Fourcroy from Greek hydr-, stem of hydor "water" (from suffixed form of PIE root *wed- (1) "water; wet") + French -gène "producing" (see -gen).

So called because it forms water when exposed to oxygen. Nativized in Russian as vodorod; in German, it is wasserstoff, "water-stuff." An earlier name for it in English was Cavendish's inflammable air (1767). Hydrogen bomb first recorded 1947; shortened form H-bomb is from 1950.
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-ion 
word-forming element attached to verbs, making nouns of state, condition, or action, from French -ion or directly from Latin -ionem (nominative -io, genitive -ionis), common suffix forming abstract nouns from verbs.
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ion (n.)
1834, introduced by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday (suggested by the Rev. William Whewell, English polymath), coined from Greek ion, neuter present participle of ienai "go," from PIE root *ei- "to go." So called because ions move toward the electrode of opposite charge.
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pH 
1909, from German PH, introduced by S.P.L. Sörensen, from P, for German Potenz "potency, power" + H, symbol for the hydrogen ion that determines acidity or alkalinity.
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hydrogenate (v.)
"cause to combine with hydrogen," 1809, from hydrogen + -ate (2). Related: Hydrogenated; hydrogenation.
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hydrochloric (adj.)
"composed of chlorine and hydrogen," 1815, from hydrochloric acid (proposed 1814 by Gay-Lussac); see hydrogen + chlorine + -ic.
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hydrocarbon (n.)
"compound of hydrogen and carbon," 1800, from hydrogen + carbon. Related: Hydrocarbonaceous; hydrocarbonous (1788).
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ionic (adj.)
"pertaining to ions," 1890, from ion + -ic.
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-on 
subatomic particle suffix, from ion.
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