Etymology
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hurt (v.)

c. 1200, "to injure, wound" (the body, feelings, reputation, etc.), also "to stumble (into), bump into; charge against, rush, crash into; knock (things) together," from Old French hurter "to ram, strike, collide with" (Modern French heurter), a word of uncertain origin. Perhaps from Frankish *hurt "ram" (source also of Middle High German hurten "run at, collide," Old Norse hrutr "ram," Middle Dutch horten "to knock, dash against").

Celtic origins also have been proposed. The English usage is as old as the French, and perhaps there was a native Old English *hyrtan, but it has not been recorded.

Passive (intransitive) use "feel or experience pain" has been occasional in modern English; current usage dates from c. 1902. Meaning "to be a source of pain" (of a body part) is from 1850. Sense of "knock" died out 17c., but compare hurtle (v.). To hurt (one's) feelings attested by 1779. Other Germanic languages tend to use their form of English scathe in this sense (Danish skade, Swedish skada, German schaden, Dutch schaden).

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hurt (n.)
c. 1200, "a wound, an injury;" also "sorrow, lovesickness," from hurt (v.). Old French had hurte (n.), but the sense "injury" is only in English.
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hurt (adj.)
"wounded, injured," c. 1400, past-participle adjective from hurt (v.).
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hurting (adj.)
1680s, "causing hurt," present-participle adjective from hurt (v.). Reflexive sense of "suffering, feeling pain" recorded by 1944.
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hurtful (adj.)
"harmful, injurious," mid-15c., from hurt (n.) + -ful. Related: Hurtfully; hurtfulness.
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hurtle (v.)
early 14c., hurteln, "to crash together; to crash down, knock down," probably frequentative of hurten (see hurt (v.)) in its original sense. Intransitive meaning "to rush, dash, charge" is late 14c. "[T]he essential notion in hurtle is that of forcible collision, in hurl that of forcible projection" [OED]. Related: Hurtled; hurtling.
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noxious (adj.)

"unwholesome, harmful," c. 1500, noxius, from Latin noxius "hurtful, injurious," from noxa "injury, hurt, damage entailing liability" (related to nocere "to hurt," and to nex "slaughter"), from PIE *noks-, from root *nek- (1) "death." Related: Noxiously; noxiousness.

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lesion (n.)
early 15c., "damage, injury," from Old French lesion "hurt, offense, wrong, injury, wound" (12c.), from Latin laesionem (nominative laesio) "a hurting, injuring, personal attack," noun of action from past participle stem of laedere "to strike, hurt, damage," a word of unknown origin with no certain cognates. Originally in English with reference to any sort of hurt, whether physical or not.
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damage (v.)
Origin and meaning of damage

"cause damage to, hurt, injure, harm," early 14c., from Old French damagier, from damage "loss caused by injury" (see damage (n.)). Related: Damaged; damaging.

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nocuous (adj.)

1630s, "noxious, harmful," from Latin nocuus "harmful," from stem of nocere "to hurt, injure, harm" (from PIE root *nek- (1) "death"). Especially of venomous serpents.

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