"act of humiliating or humbling, abasement, mortification," late 14c., from Old French humiliacion (14c.) or directly from Late Latin humiliationem (nominative humiliatio) "a humbling, humiliation," noun of action from past-participle stem of humiliare "to humble," from humilis "humble" (see humble (adj.)).
"to cause to be or appear lower or more humble; depress, especially to abase in estimation; subject to shame or disgrace; mortify," 1530s, a back-formation from humiliation or else from Late Latin humiliatus, past participle of humiliare "to humble," from humilis "lowly, humble," literally "on the ground," from humus "earth" (from PIE root *dhghem- "earth"). Earlier was humily "humble oneself" (mid-15c.), from Old French humilier. Related: Humiliated.
late 14c., mortificacioun, "mortifying of the flesh, act of subduing the passions and appetites, suppression of bodily desires," from Late Latin mortificationem (nominative mortificatio) "a killing, putting to death," from past-participle stem of mortificare (see mortify). Meaning "death of one part of the body while the rest is still alive" is from early 15c. Sense of "feeling of humiliation" is recorded by 1640s.
early 15c., dejeccioun, "unhappy condition, degradation, humiliation;" c. 1500, "state of being depressed or in low spirits," from Old French dejection "abjection, depravity; a casting down" and directly from Latin deiectionem (nominative deiectio), noun of action from past-participle stem of deicere "to cast down," from de- "down" (see de-) + -icere, combining form of iacere "to throw" (from PIE root *ye- "to throw, impel"). The literal sense "act of casting down" (1680s) is rare in English.
1922, originally used in English in 1920 in its Italian form fascismo (see fascist). Applied to similar groups in Germany from 1923; applied to everyone since the internet.
A form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation or victimhood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal restraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion. [Robert O. Paxton, "The Anatomy of Fascism," 2004]
c. 1300, affliccioun, "misery, sorrow, pain, distress" (originally especially "self-inflicted pain, self-mortification, religious asceticism"), from Old French afliction "act of humility, humiliation, mortification, punishment" (11c.) and directly from Latin afflictionem (nominative afflictio) "pain, suffering, torment," noun of action from past-participle stem of affligere "to dash down, overthrow," from ad "to" (see ad-) + fligere (past participle flictus) "to strike" (see afflict). The meaning "a cause of constant pain or sorrow" is from 1590s.
"I know, O Lord [says the Psalmist] that thy judgments are right, and that thou in faithfulness hast afflicted me;" the furnace of affliction being meant but to refine us from our earthly drossiness, and soften us for the impression of Gods own stamp and image. [Robert Boyle, "Seraphic Love," 1663]