Etymology
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headquarters (n.)

"residence of a military commander," 1640s, from head (adj.) + quarters. Headquarter as a verb is recorded from 1838 (in Headquartered).

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Interpol 

1952, contraction of international police (in full, The International Criminal Police Commission), founded 1923 with headquarters in Paris.

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Scotland Yard (n.)

used for "London Metropolitan Police," 1864, from the name of short street off Whitehall, where from 1829 to 1890 stood the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Force, hence, the force itself, especially the detective branch. After 1890, it was located in "New Scotland Yard."

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watergate (n.)

mid-14c., "channel for water;" late 14c., "flood-gate;" from water (n.1) + gate (n.). The name of a building in Washington, D.C., that housed the headquarters of the Democratic Party in the 1972 presidential election, it was burglarized June 17, 1972, which led to the resignation of President Nixon.

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Wilhelm 

German form of William (q.v.). Fem. form is Wilhelmina. Wilhelmine (adj.) is "pertaining to the reign of Wilhelm II," emperor of Germany 1888-1918. Berlin's Wilhelmstrasse was the pre-1945 headquarters of the German foreign office, hence used metonymically for "German foreign policy" (compare Quai d'Orsay).

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-gate 

suffix attached to any word to indicate "scandal involving," 1973, abstracted from Watergate, the Washington, D.C., building complex that was home of the National Headquarters of the Democratic Party when it was burglarized June 17, 1972, by operatives later found to be working for the staff and re-election campaign of U.S. President Richard Nixon.

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shanty (n.1)

"rough cabin, hut, mean dwelling," 1820, said to be from Canadian French chantier "lumberjack's headquarters," in French, "timber-yard, dock," from Old French chantier "gantry," from Latin cantherius "rafter, frame" (see gantry). Shanty Irish in reference to the Irish underclass in the U.S., is from 1928 (title of a book by Jim Tully).

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Lateran 

c. 1300, popular name of the cathedral church of St. John Lateran at Rome, which is built on the site of the palace of the Plautii Laterani, a Roman family. Given by Constantine to the bishop of Rome, as a papal headquarters and residence for nearly 1,000 years it was the site of five general councils of the Western Church, that of 1215 being regarded as most important. The Lateran Accords of 1929 settled the relationship between Italy and the Holy See.

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constabulary (n.)

1630s, "district under a constable," from Medieval Latin constabularia, from constabulus, Latinized form of Old French conestable (see constable).

Meaning "organized body of peace officers in a district" is from 1837. Earlier (mid-15c.) it was an adjective, "pertaining to a constable."

The earlier noun was constablery (mid-14c., constablerie), "office of a constable;" early 15c. as "district or headquarters of a constable," from Old French conestablerie.

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Templar (n.)

late 13c., from Anglo-French templer, Old French templier (c. 1200), from Medieval Latin templaris (mid-12c.), member of the medieval religious/military order known as Knights Templars (c.1118-1312), so called because they had headquarters in a building near Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem (see temple (n.1)). Their distinguishing garb was a white mantle with a red cross.

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