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fracture (n.)

early 15c., "a breaking of a bone," from Old French fracture (14c.) and directly from Latin fractura "a breach, break, cleft," from fractus, past participle of frangere "to break" (from PIE root *bhreg- "to break"). As "a broken surface" from 1794.

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hairline (n.)
also hair-line, "cord made of hair," 1731, from hair + line (n.). Meaning "a very fine line" is from 1846. As "the outline of the hair on top of the head," by 1903. As an adjective, of cracks, etc., 1904.
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fracture (v.)
"cause a fracture in" (transitive), 1610s (implied in fractured), from fracture (n.). Intransitive meaning "become fractured" is from 1830. Related: Fracturing.
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fraktur (n.)
1886, Fractur, "German black-lettering," from German Fraktur "black-letter, Gothic type," also "a fracture, a break," from Latin fractura (see fracture (n.)). So called from its angular, "broken" letters. The style was common in German printing from c. 1540 and thence was transferred to Pennsylvania German arts that incorporate the lettering.
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disjunction (n.)

c. 1400, disjunccioun, "fracture" (of a bone), from Old French disjunction (13c.) and directly from Latin disiunctionem (nominative disiunctio) "separation," noun of action from past-participle stem of disiungere, from dis- (see dis-) + iungere "to join together," from nasalized form of PIE root *yeug- "to join." 

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rupture (n.)

late 14c., originally medical, from Latin ruptura "the breaking (of an arm or leg), fracture," from past participle stem of rumpere "to break," from PIE root *runp- "to break" (see corrupt (adj.)). Specifically as "abdominal hernia" from early 15c.

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plagioclase (n.)

"triclinic feldspar," 1868, coined in German 1847 by German mineralogist Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt (1791-1873) from plagio- "slanting" + Greek klasis "a fracture," from stem of klan "to break" (see clastic). So called because the two prominent cleavage directions are oblique to each other. Related: Plagioclastic.

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contusion (n.)

c. 1400, "act of beating or bruising; a bruise, an injury to the body without apparent wound or fracture," from Latin contusionem (nominative contusio) "a crushing, breaking, battering," in medical language, "a bruise," noun of action from past-participle stem of contundere "to beat, bruise, grind, crush, break to pieces," from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + tundere "to beat" (see obtuse).

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*bhreg- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to break."

It forms all or part of: anfractuous; Brabant; bracken; brake (n.1) "stopping device for a wheel;" brake (n.2) "kind of fern;" brash; breach; break; breccia; breeches; brioche; chamfer; defray; diffraction; fractal; fraction; fractious; fracture; fragile; fragility; fragment; frail; frangible; infraction; infringe; irrefragable; irrefrangible; naufragous; ossifrage; refract; refraction; refrain (n.); refrangible; sassafras; saxifrage; suffragan; suffrage.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit (giri)-bhraj "breaking-forth (out of the mountains);" Latin frangere "to break (something) in pieces, shatter, fracture;" Lithuanian braškėti "crash, crack;" Old Irish braigim "break wind;" Gothic brikan, Old English brecan "to break."

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equate (v.)
early 15c., "to make similar or the same; to balance or harmonize; distribute (ingredients) uniformly; reduce to evenness or smoothness; to set (a fracture)," from Latin aequatus "level, levelled, even, side-by-side," past participle of aequare "make even or uniform, make equal," from aequus "level, even, equal" (see equal (adj.)). Earliest use in English was of astrological calculation, then "to make equal;" meaning "to regard as equal" is early 19c. Related: Equated; equating.
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