Etymology
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gulf (n.)

late 14c., "profound depth," from Old French golf "a gulf, whirlpool," from Italian golfo "a gulf, a bay," from Late Latin colfos, from Greek kolpos "bay, gulf of the sea," earlier "trough between waves, fold of a loose garment," originally "bosom," the common notion being "curved shape." This is from PIE *kuolp- "arch, curve, vault" (compare Old English hwealf"vault," a-hwielfan "to overwhelm," Old Norse holfinn "vaulted," Old High German welban "to vault").

Latin sinus underwent the same development, being used first for "bosom," later for "gulf" (and in Medieval Latin, "hollow curve or cavity in the body"). The geographic sense "large tract of water extending into the land" (larger than a bay, smaller than a sea, but the distinction is not exact and not always observed) is in English from c. 1400, replacing Old English sæ-earm. Figurative sense of "a wide interval" is from 1550s. The U.S. Gulf States so called from 1836. The Gulf Stream (1775) takes its name from the Gulf of Mexico.

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united states (n.)
attested from 1617, originally with reference to Holland; the North American confederation first so called in 1776. United Provinces were the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands, allied from 1579, later developing into the kingdom of Holland.
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Dubai 
Gulf coast emirate, of uncertain origin.
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kill (n.2)
"stream, creek," 1630s, American English, from Dutch kil "a channel," from Middle Dutch kille "riverbed, inlet." The word is preserved in place names in the Mid-Atlantic American states (such as Schuylkill, Catskill, Fresh Kills, etc.). A common Germanic word, the Old Norse form, kill, meant "bay, gulf" and gave its name to Kiel Fjord on the Baltic coast and thence to Kiel, the German port city founded there in 1240.
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stateside (adj.)
also state-side, 1944, World War II U.S. military slang, from the States "United States" (see state (n.2)) + side.
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US 
also U.S., abbreviation of United States, attested from 1834. U.S.A. for "United States of America" is recorded from 1885; before that it generally meant "U.S. Army."
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humvee (n.)
1983, popularized 1991 in Persian Gulf War military slang, rough acronym for high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle.
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Aegina 
island in the Saronic Gulf, Latinized form of Greek Aigina, which also was the name of a nymph beloved by Zeus. Related: Aeginetan.
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Balt (n.)
1878, "native or inhabitant of the Baltic states" (ancient or modern), from Late Latin Balthae, from the source of Baltic (q.v.). Before World War II sometimes meaning especially an ethnic German inhabitant of those states.
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Pensacola 

city on the Gulf coast of the Florida panhandle, named for a Muskogean tribe, from Choctaw, literally "hair-people," from pashi "hair of the head" + oklah "people."

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