Etymology
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grind (v.)

Old English grindan "to rub together, crush into powder, grate, scrape," forgrindan "destroy by crushing" (class III strong verb; past tense grand, past participle grunden), from Proto-Germanic *grindanan (source also of Dutch grenden), related to ground (v.), from PIE *ghrendh- "to grind" (source also of Latin frendere "to gnash the teeth," Greek khondros "corn, grain," Lithuanian grendu, gręsti "to scrape, scratch"). Meaning "to make smooth or sharp by friction" is from c. 1300. Most other Germanic languages use a verb cognate with Latin molere (compare Dutch malen, Old Norse mala, German mahlen).

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grind (n.)
late Old English, "the gnashing of teeth;" c. 1200, "the act of chewing or grinding," from grind (v.). The sense "steady, hard, tedious work" first recorded 1851 in college student slang (but compare gerund-grinder, 1710); the meaning "hard-working student, one who studies with dogged application" is American English slang from 1864. Slang meaning "sexual intercourse" is by 1893.
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ground (adj.)
"reduced to fine particles by grinding," 1765, past-participle adjective from grind (v.).
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grinding (adj.)
Old English, present-participle adjective from grind (v.). Meaning "oppressive, burdensome" is from 1580s. The verbal noun is from mid-14c.
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grounds (n.)
"residue at the bottom of a liquid," mid-14c., perhaps from past tense of grind (v.). Other senses, such as "enclosed portion of land" (mid-15c.) are from ground (n.).
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grist (n.)
Old English grist "action of grinding; grain to be ground," perhaps related to grindan "to grind" (see grind (v.)), though OED calls this connection "difficult." Meaning "wheat which is to be ground" is early 15c., as is the figurative extension from this sense.
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mitochondria (n.)

"organelle of cells in which biochemical processes occur," 1901, from German, coined 1898 by microbiologist Carl Benda (1857-1933), from Greek mitos "thread," a word of uncertain etymology, + khondrion "little granule," diminutive of khondros "granule, lump of salt" (see grind (v.)).

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grinder (n.)
Old English grindere "one who grinds (grain);" agent noun from grind (v.). Meaning "molar tooth" is late 14c. (Old English had grindetoð). Meaning "machine for milling" is from 1660s; of persons, from late 15c. "Large sandwich" sense is from 1954, American English, though the exact signification is uncertain (perhaps from the amount of chewing required to eat one).
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chondro- 

word-forming element in scientific compounds meaning "cartilage," from Latinized form of Greek khondros "cartilage" (of the breastbone), also "grain, grain of salt, seed, barley-grain," of uncertain origin. This is sometimes said to be from the PIE root meaning "to grind" which is the source of English grind (v.), but there are serious phonological objections and the word might be non-Indo-European [Beekes, "Etymological Dictionary of Greek"]. The body material so called for its gristly nature.

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grindstone (n.)

early 13c. "millstone," from grind (v.) in sense of "sharpen" + stone (n.); meaning

"revolving stone disc used for sharpening, etc." is from c. 1400. Phrase nose to the grindstone in use by 1530s; originally to get control of another and treat him harshly:

This Text holdeth their noses so hard to the grindstone, that it clean disfigureth their Faces. [John Frith, "Mirror to know Thyself," 1532]

The phrase's main modern (reflexive) sense of "working hard" is from 1828.

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